Pitch control of sample playback: current state of things?

To follow up, I found cutlasses' TeensyPiano project. This is a Teensy Audio Library-based sample playback engine that does _exactly_ what I want. It only plays 16bit PCM audio, and that suits me fine. Now I am back to the esthetic question: Is it possible to use a sampler tastefully? And that's where I want to be. Thanks to all for the input.
I created a sample playback object for a device I mad a couple years ago, the Delaydelus 2.
It can sample from the input or copy wav files from the SD card. Samples are stored in serial flash.
Here's a recent simplified example I did from my course on using the Teensy to make synths.