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Thread: MPU-6050, RTC DS3231 and Reset button Problem

  1. #1
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Dec 2016
    Posts
    17

    MPU-6050, RTC DS3231 and Reset button Problem

    Hello all,

    I have a problem using a RTC DS3231, a MPU-6050 and a T3.5. I'm using the example MPU6050_raw from MPU6050.h library. When I upload the sketch I get some values from the Accelerometer and the Gyro (I had changed the address from 0x68 to 0x69 in the library MPU6050.h because I want to use a RTC too).
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    When I press RESET button I get any values.
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    Code:
    #include "Wire.h"
    #include "I2Cdev.h"
    #include "MPU6050.h"
    
    MPU6050 accelgyro;
    
    int16_t ax, ay, az;
    int16_t gx, gy, gz;
    
    #define LED_PIN 13
    bool blinkState = false;
    
    void setup() {
        // join I2C bus (I2Cdev library doesn't do this automatically)
        Wire.begin();
    
        // initialize serial communication
        // (38400 chosen because it works as well at 8MHz as it does at 16MHz, but
        // it's really up to you depending on your project)
        Serial.begin(38400);
    
        // initialize device
        Serial.println("Initializing I2C devices...");
        accelgyro.initialize();
    
        // verify connection
        Serial.println("Testing device connections...");
        Serial.println(accelgyro.testConnection() ? "MPU6050 connection successful" : "MPU6050 connection failed");
    
        // configure Arduino LED for
        pinMode(LED_PIN, OUTPUT);
    }
    
    void loop() {
        // read raw accel/gyro measurements from device
        accelgyro.getMotion6(&ax, &ay, &az, &gx, &gy, &gz);
    
        // these methods (and a few others) are also available
        //accelgyro.getAcceleration(&ax, &ay, &az);
        //accelgyro.getRotation(&gx, &gy, &gz);
    
        // display tab-separated accel/gyro x/y/z values
        Serial.print("a/g:\t");
        Serial.print(ax); Serial.print("\t");
        Serial.print(ay); Serial.print("\t");
        Serial.print(az); Serial.print("\t");
        Serial.print(gx); Serial.print("\t");
        Serial.print(gy); Serial.print("\t");
        Serial.println(gz);
    
        // blink LED to indicate activity
        blinkState = !blinkState;
        digitalWrite(LED_PIN, blinkState);
    }
    Any ideas?

    Thank you so much!

  2. #2
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Apr 2013
    Posts
    1,574
    Is your Gyro supposed to be running on 3.3V or 5V? You possibly also have duplicate pullups on the i2C bus, removing one set may be closer to best practise.

    In terms of getting reset to work if I understand the question right, things work if you plug the device in, and let it go but reseting without cycling power is a problem? This would suggest that the gyro unit gets confused if it was configured and left to run and then the MCU goes away and doesn't re-init it properly.

    This may be fixable with a delay before you init the gyro to give it time to settle, otherwise you need to look into the gyro library and see if there is a reset command you can send to restore default configuration ready to re-init.

  3. #3
    I've experience similar behavior to this using jrowberg's mpu-6050 library. It was one of multiple issues I was having with the library, and I ended up switching to use Kris Winer's library for my project. You might want to give that test ride and see if it works any better.

    Something to consider: the reset button when you're connected to your computer doesn't exactly do what you might expect. There's more information on the teensy troubleshooting page about that.

    I'm presenting a project using a similar hardware set up this Thursday through Sunday. If I can get a minute after that, I can try running your code to see if anything else comes to mind, but I am travelling the following week so it'll be a tight window. Is what you posted the entire code?

  4. #4
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Jan 2018
    Posts
    5
    The krisWiner's library is not working for me, iam still getting false reading from the gyro, please can you illustrate how to use it ?

  5. #5
    Quote Originally Posted by ITS_vk View Post
    The krisWiner's library is not working for me, iam still getting false reading from the gyro, please can you illustrate how to use it ?
    By false reading, do you mean no readings like the person above? Can you post the code you're using? The examples on his github page should be fairly plug and play. If you need to use 0x69, there's a commented line you need to change, but otherwise, it should ouput numbers out of the box.

  6. #6
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Jan 2018
    Posts
    5
    Quote Originally Posted by lownote View Post
    By false reading, do you mean no readings like the person above? Can you post the code you're using? The examples on his github page should be fairly plug and play. If you need to use 0x69, there's a commented line you need to change, but otherwise, it should ouput numbers out of the box.
    Hi lownote, iam using the the MPU6050basicexample.ino code from his github page https://github.com/kriswiner/MPU6050. The code is as follows, please tell me if iam using the wrong code or i have to make some change in it, because iam using it as it is.
    Code:
    /* MPU6050 Basic Example Code
     by: Kris Winer
     date: May 1, 2014
     license: Beerware - Use this code however you'd like. If you 
     find it useful you can buy me a beer some time.
     
     Demonstrate  MPU-6050 basic functionality including initialization, accelerometer trimming, sleep mode functionality as well as
     parameterizing the register addresses. Added display functions to allow display to on breadboard monitor. 
     No DMP use. We just want to get out the accelerations, temperature, and gyro readings.
     
     SDA and SCL should have external pull-up resistors (to 3.3V).
     10k resistors worked for me. They should be on the breakout
     board.
     
     Hardware setup:
     MPU6050 Breakout --------- Arduino
     3.3V --------------------- 3.3V
     SDA ----------------------- A4
     SCL ----------------------- A5
     GND ---------------------- GND
     
      Note: The MPU6050 is an I2C sensor and uses the Arduino Wire library. 
     Because the sensor is not 5V tolerant, we are using a 3.3 V 8 MHz Pro Mini or a 3.3 V Teensy 3.1.
     We have disabled the internal pull-ups used by the Wire library in the Wire.h/twi.c utility file.
     We are also using the 400 kHz fast I2C mode by setting the TWI_FREQ  to 400000L /twi.h utility file.
     */
     
    #include <Wire.h>
    #include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
    #include <Adafruit_PCD8544.h>
    
    // Using NOKIA 5110 monochrome 84 x 48 pixel display
    // pin 9 - Serial clock out (SCLK)
    // pin 8 - Serial data out (DIN)
    // pin 7 - Data/Command select (D/C)
    // pin 5 - LCD chip select (CS)
    // pin 6 - LCD reset (RST)
    Adafruit_PCD8544 display = Adafruit_PCD8544(9, 8, 7, 5, 6);
    
    // Define registers per MPU6050, Register Map and Descriptions, Rev 4.2, 08/19/2013 6 DOF Motion sensor fusion device
    // Invensense Inc., www.invensense.com
    // See also MPU-6050 Register Map and Descriptions, Revision 4.0, RM-MPU-6050A-00, 9/12/2012 for registers not listed in 
    // above document; the MPU6050 and MPU-9150 are virtually identical but the latter has an on-board magnetic sensor
    //
    #define XGOFFS_TC        0x00 // Bit 7 PWR_MODE, bits 6:1 XG_OFFS_TC, bit 0 OTP_BNK_VLD                 
    #define YGOFFS_TC        0x01                                                                          
    #define ZGOFFS_TC        0x02
    #define X_FINE_GAIN      0x03 // [7:0] fine gain
    #define Y_FINE_GAIN      0x04
    #define Z_FINE_GAIN      0x05
    #define XA_OFFSET_H      0x06 // User-defined trim values for accelerometer
    #define XA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x07
    #define YA_OFFSET_H      0x08
    #define YA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x09
    #define ZA_OFFSET_H      0x0A
    #define ZA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x0B
    #define SELF_TEST_X      0x0D
    #define SELF_TEST_Y      0x0E    
    #define SELF_TEST_Z      0x0F
    #define SELF_TEST_A      0x10
    #define XG_OFFS_USRH     0x13  // User-defined trim values for gyroscope; supported in MPU-6050?
    #define XG_OFFS_USRL     0x14
    #define YG_OFFS_USRH     0x15
    #define YG_OFFS_USRL     0x16
    #define ZG_OFFS_USRH     0x17
    #define ZG_OFFS_USRL     0x18
    #define SMPLRT_DIV       0x19
    #define CONFIG           0x1A
    #define GYRO_CONFIG      0x1B
    #define ACCEL_CONFIG     0x1C
    #define FF_THR           0x1D  // Free-fall
    #define FF_DUR           0x1E  // Free-fall
    #define MOT_THR          0x1F  // Motion detection threshold bits [7:0]
    #define MOT_DUR          0x20  // Duration counter threshold for motion interrupt generation, 1 kHz rate, LSB = 1 ms
    #define ZMOT_THR         0x21  // Zero-motion detection threshold bits [7:0]
    #define ZRMOT_DUR        0x22  // Duration counter threshold for zero motion interrupt generation, 16 Hz rate, LSB = 64 ms
    #define FIFO_EN          0x23
    #define I2C_MST_CTRL     0x24   
    #define I2C_SLV0_ADDR    0x25
    #define I2C_SLV0_REG     0x26
    #define I2C_SLV0_CTRL    0x27
    #define I2C_SLV1_ADDR    0x28
    #define I2C_SLV1_REG     0x29
    #define I2C_SLV1_CTRL    0x2A
    #define I2C_SLV2_ADDR    0x2B
    #define I2C_SLV2_REG     0x2C
    #define I2C_SLV2_CTRL    0x2D
    #define I2C_SLV3_ADDR    0x2E
    #define I2C_SLV3_REG     0x2F
    #define I2C_SLV3_CTRL    0x30
    #define I2C_SLV4_ADDR    0x31
    #define I2C_SLV4_REG     0x32
    #define I2C_SLV4_DO      0x33
    #define I2C_SLV4_CTRL    0x34
    #define I2C_SLV4_DI      0x35
    #define I2C_MST_STATUS   0x36
    #define INT_PIN_CFG      0x37
    #define INT_ENABLE       0x38
    #define DMP_INT_STATUS   0x39  // Check DMP interrupt
    #define INT_STATUS       0x3A
    #define ACCEL_XOUT_H     0x3B
    #define ACCEL_XOUT_L     0x3C
    #define ACCEL_YOUT_H     0x3D
    #define ACCEL_YOUT_L     0x3E
    #define ACCEL_ZOUT_H     0x3F
    #define ACCEL_ZOUT_L     0x40
    #define TEMP_OUT_H       0x41
    #define TEMP_OUT_L       0x42
    #define GYRO_XOUT_H      0x43
    #define GYRO_XOUT_L      0x44
    #define GYRO_YOUT_H      0x45
    #define GYRO_YOUT_L      0x46
    #define GYRO_ZOUT_H      0x47
    #define GYRO_ZOUT_L      0x48
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_00 0x49
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_01 0x4A
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_02 0x4B
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_03 0x4C
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_04 0x4D
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_05 0x4E
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_06 0x4F
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_07 0x50
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_08 0x51
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_09 0x52
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_10 0x53
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_11 0x54
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_12 0x55
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_13 0x56
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_14 0x57
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_15 0x58
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_16 0x59
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_17 0x5A
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_18 0x5B
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_19 0x5C
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_20 0x5D
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_21 0x5E
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_22 0x5F
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_23 0x60
    #define MOT_DETECT_STATUS 0x61
    #define I2C_SLV0_DO      0x63
    #define I2C_SLV1_DO      0x64
    #define I2C_SLV2_DO      0x65
    #define I2C_SLV3_DO      0x66
    #define I2C_MST_DELAY_CTRL 0x67
    #define SIGNAL_PATH_RESET  0x68
    #define MOT_DETECT_CTRL   0x69
    #define USER_CTRL        0x6A  // Bit 7 enable DMP, bit 3 reset DMP
    #define PWR_MGMT_1       0x6B // Device defaults to the SLEEP mode
    #define PWR_MGMT_2       0x6C
    #define DMP_BANK         0x6D  // Activates a specific bank in the DMP
    #define DMP_RW_PNT       0x6E  // Set read/write pointer to a specific start address in specified DMP bank
    #define DMP_REG          0x6F  // Register in DMP from which to read or to which to write
    #define DMP_REG_1        0x70
    #define DMP_REG_2        0x71
    #define FIFO_COUNTH      0x72
    #define FIFO_COUNTL      0x73
    #define FIFO_R_W         0x74
    #define WHO_AM_I_MPU6050 0x75 // Should return 0x68
    
    // Using the GY-521 breakout board, I set ADO to 0 by grounding through a 4k7 resistor
    // Seven-bit device address is 110100 for ADO = 0 and 110101 for ADO = 1
    #define ADO 0
    #if ADO
    #define MPU6050_ADDRESS 0x69  // Device address when ADO = 1
    #else
    #define MPU6050_ADDRESS 0x68  // Device address when ADO = 0
    #endif
    
    // Set initial input parameters
    enum Ascale {
      AFS_2G = 0,
      AFS_4G,
      AFS_8G,
      AFS_16G
    };
    
    enum Gscale {
      GFS_250DPS = 0,
      GFS_500DPS,
      GFS_1000DPS,
      GFS_2000DPS
    };
    
    // Specify sensor full scale
    int Gscale = GFS_250DPS;
    int Ascale = AFS_2G;
    float aRes, gRes; // scale resolutions per LSB for the sensors
      
    // Pin definitions
    int intPin = 12;  // This can be changed, 2 and 3 are the Arduinos ext int pins
    
    int16_t accelCount[3];           // Stores the 16-bit signed accelerometer sensor output
    float ax, ay, az;                // Stores the real accel value in g's
    int16_t gyroCount[3];            // Stores the 16-bit signed gyro sensor output
    float gx, gy, gz;                // Stores the real gyro value in degrees per seconds
    float gyroBias[3], accelBias[3]; // Bias corrections for gyro and accelerometer
    int16_t tempCount;               // Stores the internal chip temperature sensor output 
    float temperature;               // Scaled temperature in degrees Celsius
    float SelfTest[6];               // Gyro and accelerometer self-test sensor output
    uint32_t count = 0;
    
    void setup()
    {
      Wire.begin();
      Serial.begin(38400);
      Wire.setSDA(18);
      Wire.setSCL(19);
      
      // Set up the interrupt pin, its set as active high, push-pull
      pinMode(intPin, INPUT);
      digitalWrite(intPin, LOW);
      
      display.begin();         // Initialize the display
      display.setContrast(58); // Set the contrast
      display.setRotation(2);  //  0 or 2) width = width, 1 or 3) width = height, swapped etc.
    
      
    // Start device display with ID of sensor
      display.clearDisplay();
      display.setTextSize(2);
      display.setCursor(20,0); display.print("MPU6050");
      display.setTextSize(1);
      display.setCursor(0, 20); display.print("6-DOF 16-bit");
      display.setCursor(0, 30); display.print("motion sensor");
      display.setCursor(20,40); display.print("60 ug LSB");
      display.display();
      delay(1000);
    
    // Set up for data display
      display.setTextSize(1);      // Set text size to normal, 2 is twice normal etc.
      display.setTextColor(BLACK); // Set pixel color; 1 on the monochrome screen
      display.clearDisplay();      // clears the screen and buffer
    
      // Read the WHO_AM_I register, this is a good test of communication
      uint8_t c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, WHO_AM_I_MPU6050);  // Read WHO_AM_I register for MPU-6050
      display.setCursor(20,0); display.print("MPU6050");
      display.setCursor(0,10); display.print("I AM");
      display.setCursor(0,20); display.print(c, HEX);  
      display.setCursor(0,30); display.print("I Should Be");
      display.setCursor(0,40); display.print(0x68, HEX); 
      display.display();
      delay(1000); 
    
      if (c == 0x68) // WHO_AM_I should always be 0x68
      {  
        Serial.println("MPU6050 is online...");
        
        MPU6050SelfTest(SelfTest); // Start by performing self test and reporting values
        Serial.print("x-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[0],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("y-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[1],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("z-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[2],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("x-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[3],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("y-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[4],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("z-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[5],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
    
        if(SelfTest[0] < 1.0f && SelfTest[1] < 1.0f && SelfTest[2] < 1.0f && SelfTest[3] < 1.0f && SelfTest[4] < 1.0f && SelfTest[5] < 1.0f) {
        display.clearDisplay();
        display.setCursor(0, 30); display.print("Pass Selftest!");  
        display.display();
        delay(1000);
      
        calibrateMPU6050(gyroBias, accelBias); // Calibrate gyro and accelerometers, load biases in bias registers  
        initMPU6050(); Serial.println("MPU6050 initialized for active data mode...."); // Initialize device for active mode read of acclerometer, gyroscope, and temperature
    
       }
       else
       {
        Serial.print("Could not connect to MPU6050: 0x");
        Serial.println(c, HEX);
        while(1) ; // Loop forever if communication doesn't happen
       }
    
      }
    }
    
    void loop()
    {  
      // If data ready bit set, all data registers have new data
      if(readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_STATUS) & 0x01) {  // check if data ready interrupt
    
        readAccelData(accelCount);  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        getAres();
        
        // Now we'll calculate the accleration value into actual g's
        ax = (float)accelCount[0]*aRes - accelBias[0];  // get actual g value, this depends on scale being set
        ay = (float)accelCount[1]*aRes - accelBias[1];   
        az = (float)accelCount[2]*aRes - accelBias[2];  
       
        readGyroData(gyroCount);  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        getGres();
     
        // Calculate the gyro value into actual degrees per second
        gx = (float)gyroCount[0]*gRes - gyroBias[0];  // get actual gyro value, this depends on scale being set
        gy = (float)gyroCount[1]*gRes - gyroBias[1];  
        gz = (float)gyroCount[2]*gRes - gyroBias[2];   
    
        tempCount = readTempData();  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        temperature = ((float) tempCount) / 340. + 36.53; // Temperature in degrees Centigrade
       }  
       
        uint32_t deltat = millis() - count;
        if(deltat > 500) {
     
        // Print acceleration values in milligs!
        Serial.print("X-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*ax); Serial.print(" mg "); 
        Serial.print("Y-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*ay); Serial.print(" mg "); 
        Serial.print("Z-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*az); Serial.println(" mg"); 
     
        // Print gyro values in degree/sec
        Serial.print("X-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gx, 1); Serial.print(" degrees/sec "); 
        Serial.print("Y-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gy, 1); Serial.print(" degrees/sec "); 
        Serial.print("Z-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gz, 1); Serial.println(" degrees/sec"); 
        
       // Print temperature in degrees Centigrade      
        Serial.print("Temperature is ");  Serial.print(temperature, 2);  Serial.println(" degrees C"); // Print T values to tenths of s degree C
        Serial.println("");
          
        display.clearDisplay();
         
        display.setCursor(24, 0); display.print("MPU6050");
        display.setCursor(0, 8); display.print(" x   y   z  ");
    
        display.setCursor(0,  16); display.print((int16_t)(1000*ax)); 
        display.setCursor(24, 16); display.print((int16_t)(1000*ay)); 
        display.setCursor(48, 16); display.print((int16_t)(1000*az)); 
        display.setCursor(72, 16); display.print("mg");
        
        display.setCursor(0,  24); display.print((int16_t)(gx)); 
        display.setCursor(24, 24); display.print((int16_t)(gy)); 
        display.setCursor(48, 24); display.print((int16_t)(gz)); 
        display.setCursor(66, 24); display.print("o/s");     
       
        display.setCursor(0,  40); display.print("Gyro T  "); 
        display.setCursor(50, 40); display.print(temperature, 1); display.print(" C");
        display.display();
        
        count = millis();
        }
    
    }
    
    //===================================================================================================================
    //====== Set of useful function to access acceleration, gyroscope, and temperature data
    //===================================================================================================================
    
    void getGres() {
      switch (Gscale)
      {
     	// Possible gyro scales (and their register bit settings) are:
    	// 250 DPS (00), 500 DPS (01), 1000 DPS (10), and 2000 DPS  (11). 
        case GFS_250DPS:
              gRes = 250.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_500DPS:
              gRes = 500.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_1000DPS:
              gRes = 1000.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_2000DPS:
              gRes = 2000.0/32768.0;
              break;
      }
    }
    
    void getAres() {
      switch (Ascale)
      {
     	// Possible accelerometer scales (and their register bit settings) are:
    	// 2 Gs (00), 4 Gs (01), 8 Gs (10), and 16 Gs  (11). 
        case AFS_2G:
              aRes = 2.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_4G:
              aRes = 4.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_8G:
              aRes = 8.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_16G:
              aRes = 16.0/32768.0;
              break;
      }
    }
    
    
    void readAccelData(int16_t * destination)
    {
      uint8_t rawData[6];  // x/y/z accel register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_XOUT_H, 6, &rawData[0]);  // Read the six raw data registers into data array
      destination[0] = (int16_t)((rawData[0] << 8) | rawData[1]) ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a signed 16-bit value
      destination[1] = (int16_t)((rawData[2] << 8) | rawData[3]) ;  
      destination[2] = (int16_t)((rawData[4] << 8) | rawData[5]) ; 
    }
    
    void readGyroData(int16_t * destination)
    {
      uint8_t rawData[6];  // x/y/z gyro register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_XOUT_H, 6, &rawData[0]);  // Read the six raw data registers sequentially into data array
      destination[0] = (int16_t)((rawData[0] << 8) | rawData[1]) ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a signed 16-bit value
      destination[1] = (int16_t)((rawData[2] << 8) | rawData[3]) ;  
      destination[2] = (int16_t)((rawData[4] << 8) | rawData[5]) ; 
    }
    
    int16_t readTempData()
    {
      uint8_t rawData[2];  // x/y/z gyro register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, TEMP_OUT_H, 2, &rawData[0]);  // Read the two raw data registers sequentially into data array 
      return ((int16_t)rawData[0]) << 8 | rawData[1] ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a 16-bit value
    }
    
    
    
    // Configure the motion detection control for low power accelerometer mode
    void LowPowerAccelOnlyMPU6050()
    {
    
    // The sensor has a high-pass filter necessary to invoke to allow the sensor motion detection algorithms work properly
    // Motion detection occurs on free-fall (acceleration below a threshold for some time for all axes), motion (acceleration
    // above a threshold for some time on at least one axis), and zero-motion toggle (acceleration on each axis less than a 
    // threshold for some time sets this flag, motion above the threshold turns it off). The high-pass filter takes gravity out
    // consideration for these threshold evaluations; otherwise, the flags would be set all the time!
      
      uint8_t c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c & ~0x30); // Clear sleep and cycle bits [5:6]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c |  0x30); // Set sleep and cycle bits [5:6] to zero to make sure accelerometer is running
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c & ~0x38); // Clear standby XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c |  0x00); // Set XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5] to zero to make sure accelerometer is running
        
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear high-pass filter bits [2:0]
    // Set high-pass filter to 0) reset (disable), 1) 5 Hz, 2) 2.5 Hz, 3) 1.25 Hz, 4) 0.63 Hz, or 7) Hold
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG,  c | 0x00);  // Set ACCEL_HPF to 0; reset mode disbaling high-pass filter
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear low-pass filter bits [2:0]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, c |  0x00);  // Set DLPD_CFG to 0; 260 Hz bandwidth, 1 kHz rate
        
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, c & ~0xFF);  // Clear all interrupts
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x40);  // Enable motion threshold (bits 5) interrupt only
      
    // Motion detection interrupt requires the absolute value of any axis to lie above the detection threshold
    // for at least the counter duration
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, MOT_THR, 0x80); // Set motion detection to 0.256 g; LSB = 2 mg
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, MOT_DUR, 0x01); // Set motion detect duration to 1  ms; LSB is 1 ms @ 1 kHz rate
      
      delay (100);  // Add delay for accumulation of samples
      
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear high-pass filter bits [2:0]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c |  0x07);  // Set ACCEL_HPF to 7; hold the initial accleration value as a referance
       
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c & ~0xC7); // Clear standby XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5] and LP_WAKE_CTRL bits [6:7]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c |  0x47); // Set wakeup frequency to 5 Hz, and disable XG, YG, and ZG gyros (bits [0:2])  
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c & ~0x20); // Clear sleep and cycle bit 5
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c |  0x20); // Set cycle bit 5 to begin low power accelerometer motion interrupts
    
    }
    
    
    void initMPU6050()
    {  
     // Initialize MPU6050 device
    
    //  wake up device-don't need this here if using calibration function below
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x00); // Clear sleep mode bit (6), enable all sensors 
    //  delay(100); // Delay 100 ms for PLL to get established on x-axis gyro; should check for PLL ready interrupt  
    
      // get stable time source
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x01);  // Set clock source to be PLL with x-axis gyroscope reference, bits 2:0 = 001
    
     // Configure Gyro and Accelerometer
     // Disable FSYNC and set accelerometer and gyro bandwidth to 44 and 42 Hz, respectively; 
     // DLPF_CFG = bits 2:0 = 010; this sets the sample rate at 1 kHz for both
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, 0x03);  
     
     // Set sample rate = gyroscope output rate/(1 + SMPLRT_DIV)
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SMPLRT_DIV, 0x04);  // Use a 200 Hz sample rate 
     
     // Set gyroscope full scale range
     // Range selects FS_SEL and AFS_SEL are 0 - 3, so 2-bit values are left-shifted into positions 4:3
      uint8_t c =  readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c & ~0xE0); // Clear self-test bits [7:5] 
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c & ~0x18); // Clear AFS bits [4:3]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c | Gscale << 3); // Set full scale range for the gyro
       
     // Set accelerometer configuration
      c =  readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0xE0); // Clear self-test bits [7:5] 
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x18); // Clear AFS bits [4:3]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c | Ascale << 3); // Set full scale range for the accelerometer 
    
      // Configure Interrupts and Bypass Enable
      // Set interrupt pin active high, push-pull, and clear on read of INT_STATUS, enable I2C_BYPASS_EN so additional chips 
      // can join the I2C bus and all can be controlled by the Arduino as master
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_PIN_CFG, 0x02);    
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x01);  // Enable data ready (bit 0) interrupt
    }
    
    
    // Function which accumulates gyro and accelerometer data after device initialization. It calculates the average
    // of the at-rest readings and then loads the resulting offsets into accelerometer and gyro bias registers.
    void calibrateMPU6050(float * dest1, float * dest2)
    {  
      uint8_t data[12]; // data array to hold accelerometer and gyro x, y, z, data
      uint16_t ii, packet_count, fifo_count;
      int32_t gyro_bias[3] = {0, 0, 0}, accel_bias[3] = {0, 0, 0};
      
    // reset device, reset all registers, clear gyro and accelerometer bias registers
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x80); // Write a one to bit 7 reset bit; toggle reset device
      delay(100);  
       
    // get stable time source
    // Set clock source to be PLL with x-axis gyroscope reference, bits 2:0 = 001
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x01);  
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, 0x00); 
      delay(200);
      
    // Configure device for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x00);   // Disable all interrupts
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x00);      // Disable FIFO
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x00);   // Turn on internal clock source
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, I2C_MST_CTRL, 0x00); // Disable I2C master
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x00);    // Disable FIFO and I2C master modes
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x0C);    // Reset FIFO and DMP
      delay(15);
      
    // Configure MPU6050 gyro and accelerometer for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, 0x01);      // Set low-pass filter to 188 Hz
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SMPLRT_DIV, 0x00);  // Set sample rate to 1 kHz
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, 0x00);  // Set gyro full-scale to 250 degrees per second, maximum sensitivity
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, 0x00); // Set accelerometer full-scale to 2 g, maximum sensitivity
     
      uint16_t  gyrosensitivity  = 131;   // = 131 LSB/degrees/sec
      uint16_t  accelsensitivity = 16384;  // = 16384 LSB/g
    
    // Configure FIFO to capture accelerometer and gyro data for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x40);   // Enable FIFO  
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x78);     // Enable gyro and accelerometer sensors for FIFO  (max size 1024 bytes in MPU-6050)
      delay(80); // accumulate 80 samples in 80 milliseconds = 960 bytes
    
    // At end of sample accumulation, turn off FIFO sensor read
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x00);        // Disable gyro and accelerometer sensors for FIFO
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_COUNTH, 2, &data[0]); // read FIFO sample count
      fifo_count = ((uint16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      packet_count = fifo_count/12;// How many sets of full gyro and accelerometer data for averaging
    
      for (ii = 0; ii < packet_count; ii++) {
        int16_t accel_temp[3] = {0, 0, 0}, gyro_temp[3] = {0, 0, 0};
        readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_R_W, 12, &data[0]); // read data for averaging
        accel_temp[0] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1]  ) ;  // Form signed 16-bit integer for each sample in FIFO
        accel_temp[1] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[2] << 8) | data[3]  ) ;
        accel_temp[2] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[4] << 8) | data[5]  ) ;    
        gyro_temp[0]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[6] << 8) | data[7]  ) ;
        gyro_temp[1]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[8] << 8) | data[9]  ) ;
        gyro_temp[2]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[10] << 8) | data[11]) ;
        
        accel_bias[0] += (int32_t) accel_temp[0]; // Sum individual signed 16-bit biases to get accumulated signed 32-bit biases
        accel_bias[1] += (int32_t) accel_temp[1];
        accel_bias[2] += (int32_t) accel_temp[2];
        gyro_bias[0]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[0];
        gyro_bias[1]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[1];
        gyro_bias[2]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[2];
                
    }
        accel_bias[0] /= (int32_t) packet_count; // Normalize sums to get average count biases
        accel_bias[1] /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        accel_bias[2] /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[0]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[1]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[2]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        
      if(accel_bias[2] > 0L) {accel_bias[2] -= (int32_t) accelsensitivity;}  // Remove gravity from the z-axis accelerometer bias calculation
      else {accel_bias[2] += (int32_t) accelsensitivity;}
     
    // Construct the gyro biases for push to the hardware gyro bias registers, which are reset to zero upon device startup
      data[0] = (-gyro_bias[0]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF; // Divide by 4 to get 32.9 LSB per deg/s to conform to expected bias input format
      data[1] = (-gyro_bias[0]/4)       & 0xFF; // Biases are additive, so change sign on calculated average gyro biases
      data[2] = (-gyro_bias[1]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[3] = (-gyro_bias[1]/4)       & 0xFF;
      data[4] = (-gyro_bias[2]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[5] = (-gyro_bias[2]/4)       & 0xFF;
    
    // Push gyro biases to hardware registers; works well for gyro but not for accelerometer
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XG_OFFS_USRH, data[0]); 
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XG_OFFS_USRL, data[1]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YG_OFFS_USRH, data[2]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YG_OFFS_USRL, data[3]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZG_OFFS_USRH, data[4]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZG_OFFS_USRL, data[5]);
    
      dest1[0] = (float) gyro_bias[0]/(float) gyrosensitivity; // construct gyro bias in deg/s for later manual subtraction
      dest1[1] = (float) gyro_bias[1]/(float) gyrosensitivity;
      dest1[2] = (float) gyro_bias[2]/(float) gyrosensitivity;
    
    // Construct the accelerometer biases for push to the hardware accelerometer bias registers. These registers contain
    // factory trim values which must be added to the calculated accelerometer biases; on boot up these registers will hold
    // non-zero values. In addition, bit 0 of the lower byte must be preserved since it is used for temperature
    // compensation calculations. Accelerometer bias registers expect bias input as 2048 LSB per g, so that
    // the accelerometer biases calculated above must be divided by 8.
    
      int32_t accel_bias_reg[3] = {0, 0, 0}; // A place to hold the factory accelerometer trim biases
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]); // Read factory accelerometer trim values
      accel_bias_reg[0] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]);
      accel_bias_reg[1] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]);
      accel_bias_reg[2] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      
      uint32_t mask = 1uL; // Define mask for temperature compensation bit 0 of lower byte of accelerometer bias registers
      uint8_t mask_bit[3] = {0, 0, 0}; // Define array to hold mask bit for each accelerometer bias axis
      
      for(ii = 0; ii < 3; ii++) {
        if(accel_bias_reg[ii] & mask) mask_bit[ii] = 0x01; // If temperature compensation bit is set, record that fact in mask_bit
      }
    
      // Construct total accelerometer bias, including calculated average accelerometer bias from above
      accel_bias_reg[0] -= (accel_bias[0]/8); // Subtract calculated averaged accelerometer bias scaled to 2048 LSB/g (16 g full scale)
      accel_bias_reg[1] -= (accel_bias[1]/8);
      accel_bias_reg[2] -= (accel_bias[2]/8);
     
      data[0] = (accel_bias_reg[0] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[1] = (accel_bias_reg[0])      & 0xFF;
      data[1] = data[1] | mask_bit[0]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
      data[2] = (accel_bias_reg[1] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[3] = (accel_bias_reg[1])      & 0xFF;
      data[3] = data[3] | mask_bit[1]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
      data[4] = (accel_bias_reg[2] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[5] = (accel_bias_reg[2])      & 0xFF;
      data[5] = data[5] | mask_bit[2]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
    
      // Push accelerometer biases to hardware registers; doesn't work well for accelerometer
      // Are we handling the temperature compensation bit correctly?
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_H, data[0]);  
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[1]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_H, data[2]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[3]);  
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_H, data[4]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[5]);
    
    // Output scaled accelerometer biases for manual subtraction in the main program
       dest2[0] = (float)accel_bias[0]/(float)accelsensitivity; 
       dest2[1] = (float)accel_bias[1]/(float)accelsensitivity;
       dest2[2] = (float)accel_bias[2]/(float)accelsensitivity;
    }
    
    
    // Accelerometer and gyroscope self test; check calibration wrt factory settings
    void MPU6050SelfTest(float * destination) // Should return percent deviation from factory trim values, +/- 14 or less deviation is a pass
    {
       uint8_t rawData[4];
       uint8_t selfTest[6];
       float factoryTrim[6];
       
       // Configure the accelerometer for self-test
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, 0xF0); // Enable self test on all three axes and set accelerometer range to +/- 8 g
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG,  0xE0); // Enable self test on all three axes and set gyro range to +/- 250 degrees/s
       delay(250);  // Delay a while to let the device execute the self-test
       rawData[0] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_X); // X-axis self-test results
       rawData[1] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_Y); // Y-axis self-test results
       rawData[2] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_Z); // Z-axis self-test results
       rawData[3] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_A); // Mixed-axis self-test results
       // Extract the acceleration test results first
       selfTest[0] = (rawData[0] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x30) >> 4 ; // XA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[1] = (rawData[1] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x0C) >> 2 ; // YA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[2] = (rawData[2] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x03) >> 0 ; // ZA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       // Extract the gyration test results first
       selfTest[3] = rawData[0]  & 0x1F ; // XG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[4] = rawData[1]  & 0x1F ; // YG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[5] = rawData[2]  & 0x1F ; // ZG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer   
       // Process results to allow final comparison with factory set values
       factoryTrim[0] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[0] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Xa] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[1] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[1] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Ya] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[2] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[2] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Za] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[3] =  ( 25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[3] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Xg] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[4] =  (-25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[4] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Yg] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[5] =  ( 25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[5] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Zg] factory trim calculation
       
     //  Output self-test results and factory trim calculation if desired
     //  Serial.println(selfTest[0]); Serial.println(selfTest[1]); Serial.println(selfTest[2]);
     //  Serial.println(selfTest[3]); Serial.println(selfTest[4]); Serial.println(selfTest[5]);
     //  Serial.println(factoryTrim[0]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[1]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[2]);
     //  Serial.println(factoryTrim[3]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[4]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[5]);
    
     // Report results as a ratio of (STR - FT)/FT; the change from Factory Trim of the Self-Test Response
     // To get to percent, must multiply by 100 and subtract result from 100
       for (int i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
         destination[i] = 100.0 + 100.0*((float)selfTest[i] - factoryTrim[i])/factoryTrim[i]; // Report percent differences
       }
       
    }
    
      void writeByte(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress, uint8_t data)
    {
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);  // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);           // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(data);                 // Put data in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission();           // Send the Tx buffer
    }
    
      uint8_t readByte(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress)
    {
    	uint8_t data; // `data` will store the register data	 
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);         // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);	                 // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission(false);             // Send the Tx buffer, but send a restart to keep connection alive
    	Wire.requestFrom(address, (uint8_t) 1);  // Read one byte from slave register address 
    	data = Wire.read();                      // Fill Rx buffer with result
    	return data;                             // Return data read from slave register
    }
    
      void readBytes(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress, uint8_t count, uint8_t * dest)
    {  
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);   // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);            // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission(false);       // Send the Tx buffer, but send a restart to keep connection alive
    	uint8_t i = 0;
            Wire.requestFrom(address, count);  // Read bytes from slave register address 
    	while (Wire.available()) {
            dest[i++] = Wire.read(); }         // Put read results in the Rx buffer
    }

  7. #7
    I just went through it side by side with my code, which is working, but also has a bunch of other things going on. It looks okay. I forgot, however, that Kris used a separate display unit to output the data. I don't have any of that. I'm attaching code I edited that substituted the display output with serial output. This is running on my 3.6 right now. It also uses the updated wire library i2c_t3, which I recommend.

    Also, the sketch isn't outputting quaternions. That requires a bit more code also found on Kris' github.

    You didn't say in the last post what was wrong though. Is the code not compiling? Is it not outputting data? What hardware are you using?

    Here's the code:

    Code:
    /* MPU6050 Basic Example Code
     by: Kris Winer
     date: May 1, 2014
     license: Beerware - Use this code however you'd like. If you 
     find it useful you can buy me a beer some time.
     
     Demonstrate  MPU-6050 basic functionality including initialization, accelerometer trimming, sleep mode functionality as well as
     parameterizing the register addresses. Added display functions to allow display to on breadboard monitor. 
     No DMP use. We just want to get out the accelerations, temperature, and gyro readings.
     
     SDA and SCL should have external pull-up resistors (to 3.3V).
     10k resistors worked for me. They should be on the breakout
     board.
     
     Hardware setup:
     MPU6050 Breakout --------- Arduino
     3.3V --------------------- 3.3V
     SDA ----------------------- A4
     SCL ----------------------- A5
     GND ---------------------- GND
     
      Note: The MPU6050 is an I2C sensor and uses the Arduino Wire library. 
     Because the sensor is not 5V tolerant, we are using a 3.3 V 8 MHz Pro Mini or a 3.3 V Teensy 3.1.
     We have disabled the internal pull-ups used by the Wire library in the Wire.h/twi.c utility file.
     We are also using the 400 kHz fast I2C mode by setting the TWI_FREQ  to 400000L /twi.h utility file.
     */
     
    #include <i2c_t3.h>
    
    
    
    // Define registers per MPU6050, Register Map and Descriptions, Rev 4.2, 08/19/2013 6 DOF Motion sensor fusion device
    // Invensense Inc., www.invensense.com
    // See also MPU-6050 Register Map and Descriptions, Revision 4.0, RM-MPU-6050A-00, 9/12/2012 for registers not listed in 
    // above document; the MPU6050 and MPU-9150 are virtually identical but the latter has an on-board magnetic sensor
    //
    #define XGOFFS_TC        0x00 // Bit 7 PWR_MODE, bits 6:1 XG_OFFS_TC, bit 0 OTP_BNK_VLD                 
    #define YGOFFS_TC        0x01                                                                          
    #define ZGOFFS_TC        0x02
    #define X_FINE_GAIN      0x03 // [7:0] fine gain
    #define Y_FINE_GAIN      0x04
    #define Z_FINE_GAIN      0x05
    #define XA_OFFSET_H      0x06 // User-defined trim values for accelerometer
    #define XA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x07
    #define YA_OFFSET_H      0x08
    #define YA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x09
    #define ZA_OFFSET_H      0x0A
    #define ZA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x0B
    #define SELF_TEST_X      0x0D
    #define SELF_TEST_Y      0x0E    
    #define SELF_TEST_Z      0x0F
    #define SELF_TEST_A      0x10
    #define XG_OFFS_USRH     0x13  // User-defined trim values for gyroscope; supported in MPU-6050?
    #define XG_OFFS_USRL     0x14
    #define YG_OFFS_USRH     0x15
    #define YG_OFFS_USRL     0x16
    #define ZG_OFFS_USRH     0x17
    #define ZG_OFFS_USRL     0x18
    #define SMPLRT_DIV       0x19
    #define CONFIG           0x1A
    #define GYRO_CONFIG      0x1B
    #define ACCEL_CONFIG     0x1C
    #define FF_THR           0x1D  // Free-fall
    #define FF_DUR           0x1E  // Free-fall
    #define MOT_THR          0x1F  // Motion detection threshold bits [7:0]
    #define MOT_DUR          0x20  // Duration counter threshold for motion interrupt generation, 1 kHz rate, LSB = 1 ms
    #define ZMOT_THR         0x21  // Zero-motion detection threshold bits [7:0]
    #define ZRMOT_DUR        0x22  // Duration counter threshold for zero motion interrupt generation, 16 Hz rate, LSB = 64 ms
    #define FIFO_EN          0x23
    #define I2C_MST_CTRL     0x24   
    #define I2C_SLV0_ADDR    0x25
    #define I2C_SLV0_REG     0x26
    #define I2C_SLV0_CTRL    0x27
    #define I2C_SLV1_ADDR    0x28
    #define I2C_SLV1_REG     0x29
    #define I2C_SLV1_CTRL    0x2A
    #define I2C_SLV2_ADDR    0x2B
    #define I2C_SLV2_REG     0x2C
    #define I2C_SLV2_CTRL    0x2D
    #define I2C_SLV3_ADDR    0x2E
    #define I2C_SLV3_REG     0x2F
    #define I2C_SLV3_CTRL    0x30
    #define I2C_SLV4_ADDR    0x31
    #define I2C_SLV4_REG     0x32
    #define I2C_SLV4_DO      0x33
    #define I2C_SLV4_CTRL    0x34
    #define I2C_SLV4_DI      0x35
    #define I2C_MST_STATUS   0x36
    #define INT_PIN_CFG      0x37
    #define INT_ENABLE       0x38
    #define DMP_INT_STATUS   0x39  // Check DMP interrupt
    #define INT_STATUS       0x3A
    #define ACCEL_XOUT_H     0x3B
    #define ACCEL_XOUT_L     0x3C
    #define ACCEL_YOUT_H     0x3D
    #define ACCEL_YOUT_L     0x3E
    #define ACCEL_ZOUT_H     0x3F
    #define ACCEL_ZOUT_L     0x40
    #define TEMP_OUT_H       0x41
    #define TEMP_OUT_L       0x42
    #define GYRO_XOUT_H      0x43
    #define GYRO_XOUT_L      0x44
    #define GYRO_YOUT_H      0x45
    #define GYRO_YOUT_L      0x46
    #define GYRO_ZOUT_H      0x47
    #define GYRO_ZOUT_L      0x48
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_00 0x49
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_01 0x4A
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_02 0x4B
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_03 0x4C
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_04 0x4D
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_05 0x4E
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_06 0x4F
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_07 0x50
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_08 0x51
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_09 0x52
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_10 0x53
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_11 0x54
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_12 0x55
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_13 0x56
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_14 0x57
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_15 0x58
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_16 0x59
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_17 0x5A
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_18 0x5B
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_19 0x5C
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_20 0x5D
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_21 0x5E
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_22 0x5F
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_23 0x60
    #define MOT_DETECT_STATUS 0x61
    #define I2C_SLV0_DO      0x63
    #define I2C_SLV1_DO      0x64
    #define I2C_SLV2_DO      0x65
    #define I2C_SLV3_DO      0x66
    #define I2C_MST_DELAY_CTRL 0x67
    #define SIGNAL_PATH_RESET  0x68
    #define MOT_DETECT_CTRL   0x69
    #define USER_CTRL        0x6A  // Bit 7 enable DMP, bit 3 reset DMP
    #define PWR_MGMT_1       0x6B // Device defaults to the SLEEP mode
    #define PWR_MGMT_2       0x6C
    #define DMP_BANK         0x6D  // Activates a specific bank in the DMP
    #define DMP_RW_PNT       0x6E  // Set read/write pointer to a specific start address in specified DMP bank
    #define DMP_REG          0x6F  // Register in DMP from which to read or to which to write
    #define DMP_REG_1        0x70
    #define DMP_REG_2        0x71
    #define FIFO_COUNTH      0x72
    #define FIFO_COUNTL      0x73
    #define FIFO_R_W         0x74
    #define WHO_AM_I_MPU6050 0x75 // Should return 0x68
    
    // Using the GY-521 breakout board, I set ADO to 0 by grounding through a 4k7 resistor
    // Seven-bit device address is 110100 for ADO = 0 and 110101 for ADO = 1
    #define ADO 0
    #if ADO
    #define MPU6050_ADDRESS 0x69  // Device address when ADO = 1
    #else
    #define MPU6050_ADDRESS 0x68  // Device address when ADO = 0
    #endif
    
    // Set initial input parameters
    enum Ascale {
      AFS_2G = 0,
      AFS_4G,
      AFS_8G,
      AFS_16G
    };
    
    enum Gscale {
      GFS_250DPS = 0,
      GFS_500DPS,
      GFS_1000DPS,
      GFS_2000DPS
    };
    
    // Specify sensor full scale
    int Gscale = GFS_250DPS;
    int Ascale = AFS_2G;
    float aRes, gRes; // scale resolutions per LSB for the sensors
      
    // Pin definitions
    int intPin = 0;  // This can be changed, 2 and 3 are the Arduinos ext int pins
    
    int16_t accelCount[3];           // Stores the 16-bit signed accelerometer sensor output
    float ax, ay, az;                // Stores the real accel value in g's
    int16_t gyroCount[3];            // Stores the 16-bit signed gyro sensor output
    float gx, gy, gz;                // Stores the real gyro value in degrees per seconds
    float gyroBias[3], accelBias[3]; // Bias corrections for gyro and accelerometer
    int16_t tempCount;               // Stores the internal chip temperature sensor output 
    float temperature;               // Scaled temperature in degrees Celsius
    float SelfTest[6];               // Gyro and accelerometer self-test sensor output
    uint32_t count = 0;
    
    void setup()
    {
      Wire.begin();
      Serial.begin(38400);
      Serial.print("A");
      Wire1.begin(I2C_MASTER, 0x00, I2C_PINS_37_38, I2C_PULLUP_EXT, 100000);
      Serial.print("B");
      delay(5000);
      Serial.print("Starting..."); 
      // Set up the interrupt pin, its set as active high, push-pull
      pinMode(intPin, INPUT);
      digitalWrite(intPin, LOW);
      
      // Read the WHO_AM_I register, this is a good test of communication
      uint8_t c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, WHO_AM_I_MPU6050);  // Read WHO_AM_I register for MPU-6050
    
    
      if (c == 0x68) // WHO_AM_I should always be 0x68
      {  
        Serial.println("MPU6050 is online...");
        
        MPU6050SelfTest(SelfTest); // Start by performing self test and reporting values
        Serial.print("x-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[0],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("y-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[1],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("z-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[2],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("x-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[3],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("y-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[4],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("z-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[5],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
    
        if(SelfTest[0] < 1.0f && SelfTest[1] < 1.0f && SelfTest[2] < 1.0f && SelfTest[3] < 1.0f && SelfTest[4] < 1.0f && SelfTest[5] < 1.0f) {
        delay(1000);
        calibrateMPU6050(gyroBias, accelBias); // Calibrate gyro and accelerometers, load biases in bias registers  
        initMPU6050(); 
        Serial.println("MPU6050 initialized for active data mode...."); // Initialize device for active mode read of acclerometer, gyroscope, and temperature
    
       }
       else
       {
        Serial.print("Could not connect to MPU6050: 0x");
        Serial.println(c, HEX);
        while(1) ; // Loop forever if communication doesn't happen
       }
    
      }
    }
    
    void loop()
    {  
      // If data ready bit set, all data registers have new data
      if(readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_STATUS) & 0x01) {  // check if data ready interrupt
    
        readAccelData(accelCount);  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        getAres();
        
        // Now we'll calculate the accleration value into actual g's
        ax = (float)accelCount[0]*aRes - accelBias[0];  // get actual g value, this depends on scale being set
        ay = (float)accelCount[1]*aRes - accelBias[1];   
        az = (float)accelCount[2]*aRes - accelBias[2];  
       
        readGyroData(gyroCount);  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        getGres();
     
        // Calculate the gyro value into actual degrees per second
        gx = (float)gyroCount[0]*gRes - gyroBias[0];  // get actual gyro value, this depends on scale being set
        gy = (float)gyroCount[1]*gRes - gyroBias[1];  
        gz = (float)gyroCount[2]*gRes - gyroBias[2];   
    
        tempCount = readTempData();  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        temperature = ((float) tempCount) / 340. + 36.53; // Temperature in degrees Centigrade
       }  
       
        uint32_t deltat = millis() - count;
        if(deltat > 500) {
     
        // Print acceleration values in milligs!
        Serial.print("X-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*ax); Serial.print(" mg "); 
        Serial.print("Y-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*ay); Serial.print(" mg "); 
        Serial.print("Z-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*az); Serial.println(" mg"); 
     
        // Print gyro values in degree/sec
        Serial.print("X-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gx, 1); Serial.print(" degrees/sec "); 
        Serial.print("Y-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gy, 1); Serial.print(" degrees/sec "); 
        Serial.print("Z-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gz, 1); Serial.println(" degrees/sec"); 
        
       // Print temperature in degrees Centigrade      
        Serial.print("Temperature is ");  Serial.print(temperature, 2);  Serial.println(" degrees C"); // Print T values to tenths of s degree C
        Serial.println("");
        
        count = millis();
        }
    
    }
    
    //===================================================================================================================
    //====== Set of useful function to access acceleration, gyroscope, and temperature data
    //===================================================================================================================
    
    void getGres() {
      switch (Gscale)
      {
     	// Possible gyro scales (and their register bit settings) are:
    	// 250 DPS (00), 500 DPS (01), 1000 DPS (10), and 2000 DPS  (11). 
        case GFS_250DPS:
              gRes = 250.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_500DPS:
              gRes = 500.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_1000DPS:
              gRes = 1000.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_2000DPS:
              gRes = 2000.0/32768.0;
              break;
      }
    }
    
    void getAres() {
      switch (Ascale)
      {
     	// Possible accelerometer scales (and their register bit settings) are:
    	// 2 Gs (00), 4 Gs (01), 8 Gs (10), and 16 Gs  (11). 
        case AFS_2G:
              aRes = 2.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_4G:
              aRes = 4.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_8G:
              aRes = 8.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_16G:
              aRes = 16.0/32768.0;
              break;
      }
    }
    
    
    void readAccelData(int16_t * destination)
    {
      uint8_t rawData[6];  // x/y/z accel register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_XOUT_H, 6, &rawData[0]);  // Read the six raw data registers into data array
      destination[0] = (int16_t)((rawData[0] << 8) | rawData[1]) ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a signed 16-bit value
      destination[1] = (int16_t)((rawData[2] << 8) | rawData[3]) ;  
      destination[2] = (int16_t)((rawData[4] << 8) | rawData[5]) ; 
    }
    
    void readGyroData(int16_t * destination)
    {
      uint8_t rawData[6];  // x/y/z gyro register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_XOUT_H, 6, &rawData[0]);  // Read the six raw data registers sequentially into data array
      destination[0] = (int16_t)((rawData[0] << 8) | rawData[1]) ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a signed 16-bit value
      destination[1] = (int16_t)((rawData[2] << 8) | rawData[3]) ;  
      destination[2] = (int16_t)((rawData[4] << 8) | rawData[5]) ; 
    }
    
    int16_t readTempData()
    {
      uint8_t rawData[2];  // x/y/z gyro register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, TEMP_OUT_H, 2, &rawData[0]);  // Read the two raw data registers sequentially into data array 
      return ((int16_t)rawData[0]) << 8 | rawData[1] ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a 16-bit value
    }
    
    
    
    // Configure the motion detection control for low power accelerometer mode
    void LowPowerAccelOnlyMPU6050()
    {
    
    // The sensor has a high-pass filter necessary to invoke to allow the sensor motion detection algorithms work properly
    // Motion detection occurs on free-fall (acceleration below a threshold for some time for all axes), motion (acceleration
    // above a threshold for some time on at least one axis), and zero-motion toggle (acceleration on each axis less than a 
    // threshold for some time sets this flag, motion above the threshold turns it off). The high-pass filter takes gravity out
    // consideration for these threshold evaluations; otherwise, the flags would be set all the time!
      
      uint8_t c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c & ~0x30); // Clear sleep and cycle bits [5:6]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c |  0x30); // Set sleep and cycle bits [5:6] to zero to make sure accelerometer is running
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c & ~0x38); // Clear standby XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c |  0x00); // Set XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5] to zero to make sure accelerometer is running
        
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear high-pass filter bits [2:0]
    // Set high-pass filter to 0) reset (disable), 1) 5 Hz, 2) 2.5 Hz, 3) 1.25 Hz, 4) 0.63 Hz, or 7) Hold
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG,  c | 0x00);  // Set ACCEL_HPF to 0; reset mode disbaling high-pass filter
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear low-pass filter bits [2:0]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, c |  0x00);  // Set DLPD_CFG to 0; 260 Hz bandwidth, 1 kHz rate
        
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, c & ~0xFF);  // Clear all interrupts
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x40);  // Enable motion threshold (bits 5) interrupt only
      
    // Motion detection interrupt requires the absolute value of any axis to lie above the detection threshold
    // for at least the counter duration
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, MOT_THR, 0x80); // Set motion detection to 0.256 g; LSB = 2 mg
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, MOT_DUR, 0x01); // Set motion detect duration to 1  ms; LSB is 1 ms @ 1 kHz rate
      
      delay (100);  // Add delay for accumulation of samples
      
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear high-pass filter bits [2:0]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c |  0x07);  // Set ACCEL_HPF to 7; hold the initial accleration value as a referance
       
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c & ~0xC7); // Clear standby XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5] and LP_WAKE_CTRL bits [6:7]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c |  0x47); // Set wakeup frequency to 5 Hz, and disable XG, YG, and ZG gyros (bits [0:2])  
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c & ~0x20); // Clear sleep and cycle bit 5
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c |  0x20); // Set cycle bit 5 to begin low power accelerometer motion interrupts
    
    }
    
    
    void initMPU6050()
    {  
     // Initialize MPU6050 device
    
    //  wake up device-don't need this here if using calibration function below
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x00); // Clear sleep mode bit (6), enable all sensors 
    //  delay(100); // Delay 100 ms for PLL to get established on x-axis gyro; should check for PLL ready interrupt  
    
      // get stable time source
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x01);  // Set clock source to be PLL with x-axis gyroscope reference, bits 2:0 = 001
    
     // Configure Gyro and Accelerometer
     // Disable FSYNC and set accelerometer and gyro bandwidth to 44 and 42 Hz, respectively; 
     // DLPF_CFG = bits 2:0 = 010; this sets the sample rate at 1 kHz for both
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, 0x03);  
     
     // Set sample rate = gyroscope output rate/(1 + SMPLRT_DIV)
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SMPLRT_DIV, 0x04);  // Use a 200 Hz sample rate 
     
     // Set gyroscope full scale range
     // Range selects FS_SEL and AFS_SEL are 0 - 3, so 2-bit values are left-shifted into positions 4:3
      uint8_t c =  readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c & ~0xE0); // Clear self-test bits [7:5] 
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c & ~0x18); // Clear AFS bits [4:3]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c | Gscale << 3); // Set full scale range for the gyro
       
     // Set accelerometer configuration
      c =  readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0xE0); // Clear self-test bits [7:5] 
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x18); // Clear AFS bits [4:3]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c | Ascale << 3); // Set full scale range for the accelerometer 
    
      // Configure Interrupts and Bypass Enable
      // Set interrupt pin active high, push-pull, and clear on read of INT_STATUS, enable I2C_BYPASS_EN so additional chips 
      // can join the I2C bus and all can be controlled by the Arduino as master
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_PIN_CFG, 0x02);    
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x01);  // Enable data ready (bit 0) interrupt
    }
    
    
    // Function which accumulates gyro and accelerometer data after device initialization. It calculates the average
    // of the at-rest readings and then loads the resulting offsets into accelerometer and gyro bias registers.
    void calibrateMPU6050(float * dest1, float * dest2)
    {  
      uint8_t data[12]; // data array to hold accelerometer and gyro x, y, z, data
      uint16_t ii, packet_count, fifo_count;
      int32_t gyro_bias[3] = {0, 0, 0}, accel_bias[3] = {0, 0, 0};
      
    // reset device, reset all registers, clear gyro and accelerometer bias registers
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x80); // Write a one to bit 7 reset bit; toggle reset device
      delay(100);  
       
    // get stable time source
    // Set clock source to be PLL with x-axis gyroscope reference, bits 2:0 = 001
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x01);  
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, 0x00); 
      delay(200);
      
    // Configure device for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x00);   // Disable all interrupts
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x00);      // Disable FIFO
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x00);   // Turn on internal clock source
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, I2C_MST_CTRL, 0x00); // Disable I2C master
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x00);    // Disable FIFO and I2C master modes
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x0C);    // Reset FIFO and DMP
      delay(15);
      
    // Configure MPU6050 gyro and accelerometer for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, 0x01);      // Set low-pass filter to 188 Hz
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SMPLRT_DIV, 0x00);  // Set sample rate to 1 kHz
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, 0x00);  // Set gyro full-scale to 250 degrees per second, maximum sensitivity
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, 0x00); // Set accelerometer full-scale to 2 g, maximum sensitivity
     
      uint16_t  gyrosensitivity  = 131;   // = 131 LSB/degrees/sec
      uint16_t  accelsensitivity = 16384;  // = 16384 LSB/g
    
    // Configure FIFO to capture accelerometer and gyro data for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x40);   // Enable FIFO  
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x78);     // Enable gyro and accelerometer sensors for FIFO  (max size 1024 bytes in MPU-6050)
      delay(80); // accumulate 80 samples in 80 milliseconds = 960 bytes
    
    // At end of sample accumulation, turn off FIFO sensor read
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x00);        // Disable gyro and accelerometer sensors for FIFO
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_COUNTH, 2, &data[0]); // read FIFO sample count
      fifo_count = ((uint16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      packet_count = fifo_count/12;// How many sets of full gyro and accelerometer data for averaging
    
      for (ii = 0; ii < packet_count; ii++) {
        int16_t accel_temp[3] = {0, 0, 0}, gyro_temp[3] = {0, 0, 0};
        readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_R_W, 12, &data[0]); // read data for averaging
        accel_temp[0] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1]  ) ;  // Form signed 16-bit integer for each sample in FIFO
        accel_temp[1] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[2] << 8) | data[3]  ) ;
        accel_temp[2] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[4] << 8) | data[5]  ) ;    
        gyro_temp[0]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[6] << 8) | data[7]  ) ;
        gyro_temp[1]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[8] << 8) | data[9]  ) ;
        gyro_temp[2]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[10] << 8) | data[11]) ;
        
        accel_bias[0] += (int32_t) accel_temp[0]; // Sum individual signed 16-bit biases to get accumulated signed 32-bit biases
        accel_bias[1] += (int32_t) accel_temp[1];
        accel_bias[2] += (int32_t) accel_temp[2];
        gyro_bias[0]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[0];
        gyro_bias[1]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[1];
        gyro_bias[2]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[2];
                
    }
        accel_bias[0] /= (int32_t) packet_count; // Normalize sums to get average count biases
        accel_bias[1] /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        accel_bias[2] /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[0]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[1]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[2]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        
      if(accel_bias[2] > 0L) {accel_bias[2] -= (int32_t) accelsensitivity;}  // Remove gravity from the z-axis accelerometer bias calculation
      else {accel_bias[2] += (int32_t) accelsensitivity;}
     
    // Construct the gyro biases for push to the hardware gyro bias registers, which are reset to zero upon device startup
      data[0] = (-gyro_bias[0]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF; // Divide by 4 to get 32.9 LSB per deg/s to conform to expected bias input format
      data[1] = (-gyro_bias[0]/4)       & 0xFF; // Biases are additive, so change sign on calculated average gyro biases
      data[2] = (-gyro_bias[1]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[3] = (-gyro_bias[1]/4)       & 0xFF;
      data[4] = (-gyro_bias[2]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[5] = (-gyro_bias[2]/4)       & 0xFF;
    
    // Push gyro biases to hardware registers; works well for gyro but not for accelerometer
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XG_OFFS_USRH, data[0]); 
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XG_OFFS_USRL, data[1]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YG_OFFS_USRH, data[2]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YG_OFFS_USRL, data[3]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZG_OFFS_USRH, data[4]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZG_OFFS_USRL, data[5]);
    
      dest1[0] = (float) gyro_bias[0]/(float) gyrosensitivity; // construct gyro bias in deg/s for later manual subtraction
      dest1[1] = (float) gyro_bias[1]/(float) gyrosensitivity;
      dest1[2] = (float) gyro_bias[2]/(float) gyrosensitivity;
    
    // Construct the accelerometer biases for push to the hardware accelerometer bias registers. These registers contain
    // factory trim values which must be added to the calculated accelerometer biases; on boot up these registers will hold
    // non-zero values. In addition, bit 0 of the lower byte must be preserved since it is used for temperature
    // compensation calculations. Accelerometer bias registers expect bias input as 2048 LSB per g, so that
    // the accelerometer biases calculated above must be divided by 8.
    
      int32_t accel_bias_reg[3] = {0, 0, 0}; // A place to hold the factory accelerometer trim biases
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]); // Read factory accelerometer trim values
      accel_bias_reg[0] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]);
      accel_bias_reg[1] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]);
      accel_bias_reg[2] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      
      uint32_t mask = 1uL; // Define mask for temperature compensation bit 0 of lower byte of accelerometer bias registers
      uint8_t mask_bit[3] = {0, 0, 0}; // Define array to hold mask bit for each accelerometer bias axis
      
      for(ii = 0; ii < 3; ii++) {
        if(accel_bias_reg[ii] & mask) mask_bit[ii] = 0x01; // If temperature compensation bit is set, record that fact in mask_bit
      }
    
      // Construct total accelerometer bias, including calculated average accelerometer bias from above
      accel_bias_reg[0] -= (accel_bias[0]/8); // Subtract calculated averaged accelerometer bias scaled to 2048 LSB/g (16 g full scale)
      accel_bias_reg[1] -= (accel_bias[1]/8);
      accel_bias_reg[2] -= (accel_bias[2]/8);
     
      data[0] = (accel_bias_reg[0] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[1] = (accel_bias_reg[0])      & 0xFF;
      data[1] = data[1] | mask_bit[0]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
      data[2] = (accel_bias_reg[1] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[3] = (accel_bias_reg[1])      & 0xFF;
      data[3] = data[3] | mask_bit[1]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
      data[4] = (accel_bias_reg[2] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[5] = (accel_bias_reg[2])      & 0xFF;
      data[5] = data[5] | mask_bit[2]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
    
      // Push accelerometer biases to hardware registers; doesn't work well for accelerometer
      // Are we handling the temperature compensation bit correctly?
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_H, data[0]);  
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[1]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_H, data[2]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[3]);  
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_H, data[4]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[5]);
    
    // Output scaled accelerometer biases for manual subtraction in the main program
       dest2[0] = (float)accel_bias[0]/(float)accelsensitivity; 
       dest2[1] = (float)accel_bias[1]/(float)accelsensitivity;
       dest2[2] = (float)accel_bias[2]/(float)accelsensitivity;
    }
    
    
    // Accelerometer and gyroscope self test; check calibration wrt factory settings
    void MPU6050SelfTest(float * destination) // Should return percent deviation from factory trim values, +/- 14 or less deviation is a pass
    {
       uint8_t rawData[4];
       uint8_t selfTest[6];
       float factoryTrim[6];
       
       // Configure the accelerometer for self-test
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, 0xF0); // Enable self test on all three axes and set accelerometer range to +/- 8 g
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG,  0xE0); // Enable self test on all three axes and set gyro range to +/- 250 degrees/s
       delay(250);  // Delay a while to let the device execute the self-test
       rawData[0] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_X); // X-axis self-test results
       rawData[1] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_Y); // Y-axis self-test results
       rawData[2] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_Z); // Z-axis self-test results
       rawData[3] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_A); // Mixed-axis self-test results
       // Extract the acceleration test results first
       selfTest[0] = (rawData[0] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x30) >> 4 ; // XA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[1] = (rawData[1] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x0C) >> 2 ; // YA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[2] = (rawData[2] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x03) >> 0 ; // ZA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       // Extract the gyration test results first
       selfTest[3] = rawData[0]  & 0x1F ; // XG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[4] = rawData[1]  & 0x1F ; // YG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[5] = rawData[2]  & 0x1F ; // ZG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer   
       // Process results to allow final comparison with factory set values
       factoryTrim[0] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[0] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Xa] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[1] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[1] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Ya] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[2] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[2] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Za] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[3] =  ( 25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[3] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Xg] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[4] =  (-25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[4] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Yg] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[5] =  ( 25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[5] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Zg] factory trim calculation
       
     //  Output self-test results and factory trim calculation if desired
     //  Serial.println(selfTest[0]); Serial.println(selfTest[1]); Serial.println(selfTest[2]);
     //  Serial.println(selfTest[3]); Serial.println(selfTest[4]); Serial.println(selfTest[5]);
     //  Serial.println(factoryTrim[0]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[1]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[2]);
     //  Serial.println(factoryTrim[3]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[4]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[5]);
    
     // Report results as a ratio of (STR - FT)/FT; the change from Factory Trim of the Self-Test Response
     // To get to percent, must multiply by 100 and subtract result from 100
       for (int i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
         destination[i] = 100.0 + 100.0*((float)selfTest[i] - factoryTrim[i])/factoryTrim[i]; // Report percent differences
       }
       
    }
    
      void writeByte(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress, uint8_t data)
    {
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);  // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);           // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(data);                 // Put data in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission();           // Send the Tx buffer
    }
    
      uint8_t readByte(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress)
    {
    	uint8_t data; // `data` will store the register data	 
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);         // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);	                 // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission(false);             // Send the Tx buffer, but send a restart to keep connection alive
    	Wire.requestFrom(address, (uint8_t) 1);  // Read one byte from slave register address 
    	data = Wire.read();                      // Fill Rx buffer with result
    	return data;                             // Return data read from slave register
    }
    
      void readBytes(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress, uint8_t count, uint8_t * dest)
    {  
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);   // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);            // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission(false);       // Send the Tx buffer, but send a restart to keep connection alive
    	uint8_t i = 0;
            Wire.requestFrom(address, count);  // Read bytes from slave register address 
    	while (Wire.available()) {
            dest[i++] = Wire.read(); }         // Put read results in the Rx buffer
    }

    Quote Originally Posted by ITS_vk View Post
    Hi lownote, iam using the the MPU6050basicexample.ino code from his github page https://github.com/kriswiner/MPU6050. The code is as follows, please tell me if iam using the wrong code or i have to make some change in it, because iam using it as it is.
    Code:
    /* MPU6050 Basic Example Code
     by: Kris Winer
     date: May 1, 2014
     license: Beerware - Use this code however you'd like. If you 
     find it useful you can buy me a beer some time.
     
     Demonstrate  MPU-6050 basic functionality including initialization, accelerometer trimming, sleep mode functionality as well as
     parameterizing the register addresses. Added display functions to allow display to on breadboard monitor. 
     No DMP use. We just want to get out the accelerations, temperature, and gyro readings.
     
     SDA and SCL should have external pull-up resistors (to 3.3V).
     10k resistors worked for me. They should be on the breakout
     board.
     
     Hardware setup:
     MPU6050 Breakout --------- Arduino
     3.3V --------------------- 3.3V
     SDA ----------------------- A4
     SCL ----------------------- A5
     GND ---------------------- GND
     
      Note: The MPU6050 is an I2C sensor and uses the Arduino Wire library. 
     Because the sensor is not 5V tolerant, we are using a 3.3 V 8 MHz Pro Mini or a 3.3 V Teensy 3.1.
     We have disabled the internal pull-ups used by the Wire library in the Wire.h/twi.c utility file.
     We are also using the 400 kHz fast I2C mode by setting the TWI_FREQ  to 400000L /twi.h utility file.
     */
     
    #include <Wire.h>
    #include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
    #include <Adafruit_PCD8544.h>
    
    // Using NOKIA 5110 monochrome 84 x 48 pixel display
    // pin 9 - Serial clock out (SCLK)
    // pin 8 - Serial data out (DIN)
    // pin 7 - Data/Command select (D/C)
    // pin 5 - LCD chip select (CS)
    // pin 6 - LCD reset (RST)
    Adafruit_PCD8544 display = Adafruit_PCD8544(9, 8, 7, 5, 6);
    
    // Define registers per MPU6050, Register Map and Descriptions, Rev 4.2, 08/19/2013 6 DOF Motion sensor fusion device
    // Invensense Inc., www.invensense.com
    // See also MPU-6050 Register Map and Descriptions, Revision 4.0, RM-MPU-6050A-00, 9/12/2012 for registers not listed in 
    // above document; the MPU6050 and MPU-9150 are virtually identical but the latter has an on-board magnetic sensor
    //
    #define XGOFFS_TC        0x00 // Bit 7 PWR_MODE, bits 6:1 XG_OFFS_TC, bit 0 OTP_BNK_VLD                 
    #define YGOFFS_TC        0x01                                                                          
    #define ZGOFFS_TC        0x02
    #define X_FINE_GAIN      0x03 // [7:0] fine gain
    #define Y_FINE_GAIN      0x04
    #define Z_FINE_GAIN      0x05
    #define XA_OFFSET_H      0x06 // User-defined trim values for accelerometer
    #define XA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x07
    #define YA_OFFSET_H      0x08
    #define YA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x09
    #define ZA_OFFSET_H      0x0A
    #define ZA_OFFSET_L_TC   0x0B
    #define SELF_TEST_X      0x0D
    #define SELF_TEST_Y      0x0E    
    #define SELF_TEST_Z      0x0F
    #define SELF_TEST_A      0x10
    #define XG_OFFS_USRH     0x13  // User-defined trim values for gyroscope; supported in MPU-6050?
    #define XG_OFFS_USRL     0x14
    #define YG_OFFS_USRH     0x15
    #define YG_OFFS_USRL     0x16
    #define ZG_OFFS_USRH     0x17
    #define ZG_OFFS_USRL     0x18
    #define SMPLRT_DIV       0x19
    #define CONFIG           0x1A
    #define GYRO_CONFIG      0x1B
    #define ACCEL_CONFIG     0x1C
    #define FF_THR           0x1D  // Free-fall
    #define FF_DUR           0x1E  // Free-fall
    #define MOT_THR          0x1F  // Motion detection threshold bits [7:0]
    #define MOT_DUR          0x20  // Duration counter threshold for motion interrupt generation, 1 kHz rate, LSB = 1 ms
    #define ZMOT_THR         0x21  // Zero-motion detection threshold bits [7:0]
    #define ZRMOT_DUR        0x22  // Duration counter threshold for zero motion interrupt generation, 16 Hz rate, LSB = 64 ms
    #define FIFO_EN          0x23
    #define I2C_MST_CTRL     0x24   
    #define I2C_SLV0_ADDR    0x25
    #define I2C_SLV0_REG     0x26
    #define I2C_SLV0_CTRL    0x27
    #define I2C_SLV1_ADDR    0x28
    #define I2C_SLV1_REG     0x29
    #define I2C_SLV1_CTRL    0x2A
    #define I2C_SLV2_ADDR    0x2B
    #define I2C_SLV2_REG     0x2C
    #define I2C_SLV2_CTRL    0x2D
    #define I2C_SLV3_ADDR    0x2E
    #define I2C_SLV3_REG     0x2F
    #define I2C_SLV3_CTRL    0x30
    #define I2C_SLV4_ADDR    0x31
    #define I2C_SLV4_REG     0x32
    #define I2C_SLV4_DO      0x33
    #define I2C_SLV4_CTRL    0x34
    #define I2C_SLV4_DI      0x35
    #define I2C_MST_STATUS   0x36
    #define INT_PIN_CFG      0x37
    #define INT_ENABLE       0x38
    #define DMP_INT_STATUS   0x39  // Check DMP interrupt
    #define INT_STATUS       0x3A
    #define ACCEL_XOUT_H     0x3B
    #define ACCEL_XOUT_L     0x3C
    #define ACCEL_YOUT_H     0x3D
    #define ACCEL_YOUT_L     0x3E
    #define ACCEL_ZOUT_H     0x3F
    #define ACCEL_ZOUT_L     0x40
    #define TEMP_OUT_H       0x41
    #define TEMP_OUT_L       0x42
    #define GYRO_XOUT_H      0x43
    #define GYRO_XOUT_L      0x44
    #define GYRO_YOUT_H      0x45
    #define GYRO_YOUT_L      0x46
    #define GYRO_ZOUT_H      0x47
    #define GYRO_ZOUT_L      0x48
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_00 0x49
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_01 0x4A
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_02 0x4B
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_03 0x4C
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_04 0x4D
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_05 0x4E
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_06 0x4F
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_07 0x50
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_08 0x51
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_09 0x52
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_10 0x53
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_11 0x54
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_12 0x55
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_13 0x56
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_14 0x57
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_15 0x58
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_16 0x59
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_17 0x5A
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_18 0x5B
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_19 0x5C
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_20 0x5D
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_21 0x5E
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_22 0x5F
    #define EXT_SENS_DATA_23 0x60
    #define MOT_DETECT_STATUS 0x61
    #define I2C_SLV0_DO      0x63
    #define I2C_SLV1_DO      0x64
    #define I2C_SLV2_DO      0x65
    #define I2C_SLV3_DO      0x66
    #define I2C_MST_DELAY_CTRL 0x67
    #define SIGNAL_PATH_RESET  0x68
    #define MOT_DETECT_CTRL   0x69
    #define USER_CTRL        0x6A  // Bit 7 enable DMP, bit 3 reset DMP
    #define PWR_MGMT_1       0x6B // Device defaults to the SLEEP mode
    #define PWR_MGMT_2       0x6C
    #define DMP_BANK         0x6D  // Activates a specific bank in the DMP
    #define DMP_RW_PNT       0x6E  // Set read/write pointer to a specific start address in specified DMP bank
    #define DMP_REG          0x6F  // Register in DMP from which to read or to which to write
    #define DMP_REG_1        0x70
    #define DMP_REG_2        0x71
    #define FIFO_COUNTH      0x72
    #define FIFO_COUNTL      0x73
    #define FIFO_R_W         0x74
    #define WHO_AM_I_MPU6050 0x75 // Should return 0x68
    
    // Using the GY-521 breakout board, I set ADO to 0 by grounding through a 4k7 resistor
    // Seven-bit device address is 110100 for ADO = 0 and 110101 for ADO = 1
    #define ADO 0
    #if ADO
    #define MPU6050_ADDRESS 0x69  // Device address when ADO = 1
    #else
    #define MPU6050_ADDRESS 0x68  // Device address when ADO = 0
    #endif
    
    // Set initial input parameters
    enum Ascale {
      AFS_2G = 0,
      AFS_4G,
      AFS_8G,
      AFS_16G
    };
    
    enum Gscale {
      GFS_250DPS = 0,
      GFS_500DPS,
      GFS_1000DPS,
      GFS_2000DPS
    };
    
    // Specify sensor full scale
    int Gscale = GFS_250DPS;
    int Ascale = AFS_2G;
    float aRes, gRes; // scale resolutions per LSB for the sensors
      
    // Pin definitions
    int intPin = 12;  // This can be changed, 2 and 3 are the Arduinos ext int pins
    
    int16_t accelCount[3];           // Stores the 16-bit signed accelerometer sensor output
    float ax, ay, az;                // Stores the real accel value in g's
    int16_t gyroCount[3];            // Stores the 16-bit signed gyro sensor output
    float gx, gy, gz;                // Stores the real gyro value in degrees per seconds
    float gyroBias[3], accelBias[3]; // Bias corrections for gyro and accelerometer
    int16_t tempCount;               // Stores the internal chip temperature sensor output 
    float temperature;               // Scaled temperature in degrees Celsius
    float SelfTest[6];               // Gyro and accelerometer self-test sensor output
    uint32_t count = 0;
    
    void setup()
    {
      Wire.begin();
      Serial.begin(38400);
      Wire.setSDA(18);
      Wire.setSCL(19);
      
      // Set up the interrupt pin, its set as active high, push-pull
      pinMode(intPin, INPUT);
      digitalWrite(intPin, LOW);
      
      display.begin();         // Initialize the display
      display.setContrast(58); // Set the contrast
      display.setRotation(2);  //  0 or 2) width = width, 1 or 3) width = height, swapped etc.
    
      
    // Start device display with ID of sensor
      display.clearDisplay();
      display.setTextSize(2);
      display.setCursor(20,0); display.print("MPU6050");
      display.setTextSize(1);
      display.setCursor(0, 20); display.print("6-DOF 16-bit");
      display.setCursor(0, 30); display.print("motion sensor");
      display.setCursor(20,40); display.print("60 ug LSB");
      display.display();
      delay(1000);
    
    // Set up for data display
      display.setTextSize(1);      // Set text size to normal, 2 is twice normal etc.
      display.setTextColor(BLACK); // Set pixel color; 1 on the monochrome screen
      display.clearDisplay();      // clears the screen and buffer
    
      // Read the WHO_AM_I register, this is a good test of communication
      uint8_t c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, WHO_AM_I_MPU6050);  // Read WHO_AM_I register for MPU-6050
      display.setCursor(20,0); display.print("MPU6050");
      display.setCursor(0,10); display.print("I AM");
      display.setCursor(0,20); display.print(c, HEX);  
      display.setCursor(0,30); display.print("I Should Be");
      display.setCursor(0,40); display.print(0x68, HEX); 
      display.display();
      delay(1000); 
    
      if (c == 0x68) // WHO_AM_I should always be 0x68
      {  
        Serial.println("MPU6050 is online...");
        
        MPU6050SelfTest(SelfTest); // Start by performing self test and reporting values
        Serial.print("x-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[0],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("y-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[1],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("z-axis self test: acceleration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[2],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("x-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[3],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("y-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[4],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
        Serial.print("z-axis self test: gyration trim within : "); Serial.print(SelfTest[5],1); Serial.println("% of factory value");
    
        if(SelfTest[0] < 1.0f && SelfTest[1] < 1.0f && SelfTest[2] < 1.0f && SelfTest[3] < 1.0f && SelfTest[4] < 1.0f && SelfTest[5] < 1.0f) {
        display.clearDisplay();
        display.setCursor(0, 30); display.print("Pass Selftest!");  
        display.display();
        delay(1000);
      
        calibrateMPU6050(gyroBias, accelBias); // Calibrate gyro and accelerometers, load biases in bias registers  
        initMPU6050(); Serial.println("MPU6050 initialized for active data mode...."); // Initialize device for active mode read of acclerometer, gyroscope, and temperature
    
       }
       else
       {
        Serial.print("Could not connect to MPU6050: 0x");
        Serial.println(c, HEX);
        while(1) ; // Loop forever if communication doesn't happen
       }
    
      }
    }
    
    void loop()
    {  
      // If data ready bit set, all data registers have new data
      if(readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_STATUS) & 0x01) {  // check if data ready interrupt
    
        readAccelData(accelCount);  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        getAres();
        
        // Now we'll calculate the accleration value into actual g's
        ax = (float)accelCount[0]*aRes - accelBias[0];  // get actual g value, this depends on scale being set
        ay = (float)accelCount[1]*aRes - accelBias[1];   
        az = (float)accelCount[2]*aRes - accelBias[2];  
       
        readGyroData(gyroCount);  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        getGres();
     
        // Calculate the gyro value into actual degrees per second
        gx = (float)gyroCount[0]*gRes - gyroBias[0];  // get actual gyro value, this depends on scale being set
        gy = (float)gyroCount[1]*gRes - gyroBias[1];  
        gz = (float)gyroCount[2]*gRes - gyroBias[2];   
    
        tempCount = readTempData();  // Read the x/y/z adc values
        temperature = ((float) tempCount) / 340. + 36.53; // Temperature in degrees Centigrade
       }  
       
        uint32_t deltat = millis() - count;
        if(deltat > 500) {
     
        // Print acceleration values in milligs!
        Serial.print("X-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*ax); Serial.print(" mg "); 
        Serial.print("Y-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*ay); Serial.print(" mg "); 
        Serial.print("Z-acceleration: "); Serial.print(1000*az); Serial.println(" mg"); 
     
        // Print gyro values in degree/sec
        Serial.print("X-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gx, 1); Serial.print(" degrees/sec "); 
        Serial.print("Y-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gy, 1); Serial.print(" degrees/sec "); 
        Serial.print("Z-gyro rate: "); Serial.print(gz, 1); Serial.println(" degrees/sec"); 
        
       // Print temperature in degrees Centigrade      
        Serial.print("Temperature is ");  Serial.print(temperature, 2);  Serial.println(" degrees C"); // Print T values to tenths of s degree C
        Serial.println("");
          
        display.clearDisplay();
         
        display.setCursor(24, 0); display.print("MPU6050");
        display.setCursor(0, 8); display.print(" x   y   z  ");
    
        display.setCursor(0,  16); display.print((int16_t)(1000*ax)); 
        display.setCursor(24, 16); display.print((int16_t)(1000*ay)); 
        display.setCursor(48, 16); display.print((int16_t)(1000*az)); 
        display.setCursor(72, 16); display.print("mg");
        
        display.setCursor(0,  24); display.print((int16_t)(gx)); 
        display.setCursor(24, 24); display.print((int16_t)(gy)); 
        display.setCursor(48, 24); display.print((int16_t)(gz)); 
        display.setCursor(66, 24); display.print("o/s");     
       
        display.setCursor(0,  40); display.print("Gyro T  "); 
        display.setCursor(50, 40); display.print(temperature, 1); display.print(" C");
        display.display();
        
        count = millis();
        }
    
    }
    
    //===================================================================================================================
    //====== Set of useful function to access acceleration, gyroscope, and temperature data
    //===================================================================================================================
    
    void getGres() {
      switch (Gscale)
      {
     	// Possible gyro scales (and their register bit settings) are:
    	// 250 DPS (00), 500 DPS (01), 1000 DPS (10), and 2000 DPS  (11). 
        case GFS_250DPS:
              gRes = 250.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_500DPS:
              gRes = 500.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_1000DPS:
              gRes = 1000.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case GFS_2000DPS:
              gRes = 2000.0/32768.0;
              break;
      }
    }
    
    void getAres() {
      switch (Ascale)
      {
     	// Possible accelerometer scales (and their register bit settings) are:
    	// 2 Gs (00), 4 Gs (01), 8 Gs (10), and 16 Gs  (11). 
        case AFS_2G:
              aRes = 2.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_4G:
              aRes = 4.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_8G:
              aRes = 8.0/32768.0;
              break;
        case AFS_16G:
              aRes = 16.0/32768.0;
              break;
      }
    }
    
    
    void readAccelData(int16_t * destination)
    {
      uint8_t rawData[6];  // x/y/z accel register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_XOUT_H, 6, &rawData[0]);  // Read the six raw data registers into data array
      destination[0] = (int16_t)((rawData[0] << 8) | rawData[1]) ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a signed 16-bit value
      destination[1] = (int16_t)((rawData[2] << 8) | rawData[3]) ;  
      destination[2] = (int16_t)((rawData[4] << 8) | rawData[5]) ; 
    }
    
    void readGyroData(int16_t * destination)
    {
      uint8_t rawData[6];  // x/y/z gyro register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_XOUT_H, 6, &rawData[0]);  // Read the six raw data registers sequentially into data array
      destination[0] = (int16_t)((rawData[0] << 8) | rawData[1]) ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a signed 16-bit value
      destination[1] = (int16_t)((rawData[2] << 8) | rawData[3]) ;  
      destination[2] = (int16_t)((rawData[4] << 8) | rawData[5]) ; 
    }
    
    int16_t readTempData()
    {
      uint8_t rawData[2];  // x/y/z gyro register data stored here
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, TEMP_OUT_H, 2, &rawData[0]);  // Read the two raw data registers sequentially into data array 
      return ((int16_t)rawData[0]) << 8 | rawData[1] ;  // Turn the MSB and LSB into a 16-bit value
    }
    
    
    
    // Configure the motion detection control for low power accelerometer mode
    void LowPowerAccelOnlyMPU6050()
    {
    
    // The sensor has a high-pass filter necessary to invoke to allow the sensor motion detection algorithms work properly
    // Motion detection occurs on free-fall (acceleration below a threshold for some time for all axes), motion (acceleration
    // above a threshold for some time on at least one axis), and zero-motion toggle (acceleration on each axis less than a 
    // threshold for some time sets this flag, motion above the threshold turns it off). The high-pass filter takes gravity out
    // consideration for these threshold evaluations; otherwise, the flags would be set all the time!
      
      uint8_t c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c & ~0x30); // Clear sleep and cycle bits [5:6]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c |  0x30); // Set sleep and cycle bits [5:6] to zero to make sure accelerometer is running
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c & ~0x38); // Clear standby XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c |  0x00); // Set XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5] to zero to make sure accelerometer is running
        
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear high-pass filter bits [2:0]
    // Set high-pass filter to 0) reset (disable), 1) 5 Hz, 2) 2.5 Hz, 3) 1.25 Hz, 4) 0.63 Hz, or 7) Hold
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG,  c | 0x00);  // Set ACCEL_HPF to 0; reset mode disbaling high-pass filter
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear low-pass filter bits [2:0]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, c |  0x00);  // Set DLPD_CFG to 0; 260 Hz bandwidth, 1 kHz rate
        
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, c & ~0xFF);  // Clear all interrupts
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x40);  // Enable motion threshold (bits 5) interrupt only
      
    // Motion detection interrupt requires the absolute value of any axis to lie above the detection threshold
    // for at least the counter duration
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, MOT_THR, 0x80); // Set motion detection to 0.256 g; LSB = 2 mg
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, MOT_DUR, 0x01); // Set motion detect duration to 1  ms; LSB is 1 ms @ 1 kHz rate
      
      delay (100);  // Add delay for accumulation of samples
      
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x07); // Clear high-pass filter bits [2:0]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c |  0x07);  // Set ACCEL_HPF to 7; hold the initial accleration value as a referance
       
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c & ~0xC7); // Clear standby XA, YA, and ZA bits [3:5] and LP_WAKE_CTRL bits [6:7]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, c |  0x47); // Set wakeup frequency to 5 Hz, and disable XG, YG, and ZG gyros (bits [0:2])  
    
      c = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c & ~0x20); // Clear sleep and cycle bit 5
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, c |  0x20); // Set cycle bit 5 to begin low power accelerometer motion interrupts
    
    }
    
    
    void initMPU6050()
    {  
     // Initialize MPU6050 device
    
    //  wake up device-don't need this here if using calibration function below
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x00); // Clear sleep mode bit (6), enable all sensors 
    //  delay(100); // Delay 100 ms for PLL to get established on x-axis gyro; should check for PLL ready interrupt  
    
      // get stable time source
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x01);  // Set clock source to be PLL with x-axis gyroscope reference, bits 2:0 = 001
    
     // Configure Gyro and Accelerometer
     // Disable FSYNC and set accelerometer and gyro bandwidth to 44 and 42 Hz, respectively; 
     // DLPF_CFG = bits 2:0 = 010; this sets the sample rate at 1 kHz for both
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, 0x03);  
     
     // Set sample rate = gyroscope output rate/(1 + SMPLRT_DIV)
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SMPLRT_DIV, 0x04);  // Use a 200 Hz sample rate 
     
     // Set gyroscope full scale range
     // Range selects FS_SEL and AFS_SEL are 0 - 3, so 2-bit values are left-shifted into positions 4:3
      uint8_t c =  readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c & ~0xE0); // Clear self-test bits [7:5] 
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c & ~0x18); // Clear AFS bits [4:3]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, c | Gscale << 3); // Set full scale range for the gyro
       
     // Set accelerometer configuration
      c =  readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG);
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0xE0); // Clear self-test bits [7:5] 
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c & ~0x18); // Clear AFS bits [4:3]
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, c | Ascale << 3); // Set full scale range for the accelerometer 
    
      // Configure Interrupts and Bypass Enable
      // Set interrupt pin active high, push-pull, and clear on read of INT_STATUS, enable I2C_BYPASS_EN so additional chips 
      // can join the I2C bus and all can be controlled by the Arduino as master
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_PIN_CFG, 0x02);    
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x01);  // Enable data ready (bit 0) interrupt
    }
    
    
    // Function which accumulates gyro and accelerometer data after device initialization. It calculates the average
    // of the at-rest readings and then loads the resulting offsets into accelerometer and gyro bias registers.
    void calibrateMPU6050(float * dest1, float * dest2)
    {  
      uint8_t data[12]; // data array to hold accelerometer and gyro x, y, z, data
      uint16_t ii, packet_count, fifo_count;
      int32_t gyro_bias[3] = {0, 0, 0}, accel_bias[3] = {0, 0, 0};
      
    // reset device, reset all registers, clear gyro and accelerometer bias registers
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x80); // Write a one to bit 7 reset bit; toggle reset device
      delay(100);  
       
    // get stable time source
    // Set clock source to be PLL with x-axis gyroscope reference, bits 2:0 = 001
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x01);  
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_2, 0x00); 
      delay(200);
      
    // Configure device for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, INT_ENABLE, 0x00);   // Disable all interrupts
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x00);      // Disable FIFO
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, PWR_MGMT_1, 0x00);   // Turn on internal clock source
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, I2C_MST_CTRL, 0x00); // Disable I2C master
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x00);    // Disable FIFO and I2C master modes
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x0C);    // Reset FIFO and DMP
      delay(15);
      
    // Configure MPU6050 gyro and accelerometer for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, CONFIG, 0x01);      // Set low-pass filter to 188 Hz
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SMPLRT_DIV, 0x00);  // Set sample rate to 1 kHz
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG, 0x00);  // Set gyro full-scale to 250 degrees per second, maximum sensitivity
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, 0x00); // Set accelerometer full-scale to 2 g, maximum sensitivity
     
      uint16_t  gyrosensitivity  = 131;   // = 131 LSB/degrees/sec
      uint16_t  accelsensitivity = 16384;  // = 16384 LSB/g
    
    // Configure FIFO to capture accelerometer and gyro data for bias calculation
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, USER_CTRL, 0x40);   // Enable FIFO  
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x78);     // Enable gyro and accelerometer sensors for FIFO  (max size 1024 bytes in MPU-6050)
      delay(80); // accumulate 80 samples in 80 milliseconds = 960 bytes
    
    // At end of sample accumulation, turn off FIFO sensor read
      writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_EN, 0x00);        // Disable gyro and accelerometer sensors for FIFO
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_COUNTH, 2, &data[0]); // read FIFO sample count
      fifo_count = ((uint16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      packet_count = fifo_count/12;// How many sets of full gyro and accelerometer data for averaging
    
      for (ii = 0; ii < packet_count; ii++) {
        int16_t accel_temp[3] = {0, 0, 0}, gyro_temp[3] = {0, 0, 0};
        readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, FIFO_R_W, 12, &data[0]); // read data for averaging
        accel_temp[0] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1]  ) ;  // Form signed 16-bit integer for each sample in FIFO
        accel_temp[1] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[2] << 8) | data[3]  ) ;
        accel_temp[2] = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[4] << 8) | data[5]  ) ;    
        gyro_temp[0]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[6] << 8) | data[7]  ) ;
        gyro_temp[1]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[8] << 8) | data[9]  ) ;
        gyro_temp[2]  = (int16_t) (((int16_t)data[10] << 8) | data[11]) ;
        
        accel_bias[0] += (int32_t) accel_temp[0]; // Sum individual signed 16-bit biases to get accumulated signed 32-bit biases
        accel_bias[1] += (int32_t) accel_temp[1];
        accel_bias[2] += (int32_t) accel_temp[2];
        gyro_bias[0]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[0];
        gyro_bias[1]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[1];
        gyro_bias[2]  += (int32_t) gyro_temp[2];
                
    }
        accel_bias[0] /= (int32_t) packet_count; // Normalize sums to get average count biases
        accel_bias[1] /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        accel_bias[2] /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[0]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[1]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        gyro_bias[2]  /= (int32_t) packet_count;
        
      if(accel_bias[2] > 0L) {accel_bias[2] -= (int32_t) accelsensitivity;}  // Remove gravity from the z-axis accelerometer bias calculation
      else {accel_bias[2] += (int32_t) accelsensitivity;}
     
    // Construct the gyro biases for push to the hardware gyro bias registers, which are reset to zero upon device startup
      data[0] = (-gyro_bias[0]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF; // Divide by 4 to get 32.9 LSB per deg/s to conform to expected bias input format
      data[1] = (-gyro_bias[0]/4)       & 0xFF; // Biases are additive, so change sign on calculated average gyro biases
      data[2] = (-gyro_bias[1]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[3] = (-gyro_bias[1]/4)       & 0xFF;
      data[4] = (-gyro_bias[2]/4  >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[5] = (-gyro_bias[2]/4)       & 0xFF;
    
    // Push gyro biases to hardware registers; works well for gyro but not for accelerometer
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XG_OFFS_USRH, data[0]); 
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XG_OFFS_USRL, data[1]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YG_OFFS_USRH, data[2]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YG_OFFS_USRL, data[3]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZG_OFFS_USRH, data[4]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZG_OFFS_USRL, data[5]);
    
      dest1[0] = (float) gyro_bias[0]/(float) gyrosensitivity; // construct gyro bias in deg/s for later manual subtraction
      dest1[1] = (float) gyro_bias[1]/(float) gyrosensitivity;
      dest1[2] = (float) gyro_bias[2]/(float) gyrosensitivity;
    
    // Construct the accelerometer biases for push to the hardware accelerometer bias registers. These registers contain
    // factory trim values which must be added to the calculated accelerometer biases; on boot up these registers will hold
    // non-zero values. In addition, bit 0 of the lower byte must be preserved since it is used for temperature
    // compensation calculations. Accelerometer bias registers expect bias input as 2048 LSB per g, so that
    // the accelerometer biases calculated above must be divided by 8.
    
      int32_t accel_bias_reg[3] = {0, 0, 0}; // A place to hold the factory accelerometer trim biases
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]); // Read factory accelerometer trim values
      accel_bias_reg[0] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]);
      accel_bias_reg[1] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      readBytes(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_H, 2, &data[0]);
      accel_bias_reg[2] = (int16_t) ((int16_t)data[0] << 8) | data[1];
      
      uint32_t mask = 1uL; // Define mask for temperature compensation bit 0 of lower byte of accelerometer bias registers
      uint8_t mask_bit[3] = {0, 0, 0}; // Define array to hold mask bit for each accelerometer bias axis
      
      for(ii = 0; ii < 3; ii++) {
        if(accel_bias_reg[ii] & mask) mask_bit[ii] = 0x01; // If temperature compensation bit is set, record that fact in mask_bit
      }
    
      // Construct total accelerometer bias, including calculated average accelerometer bias from above
      accel_bias_reg[0] -= (accel_bias[0]/8); // Subtract calculated averaged accelerometer bias scaled to 2048 LSB/g (16 g full scale)
      accel_bias_reg[1] -= (accel_bias[1]/8);
      accel_bias_reg[2] -= (accel_bias[2]/8);
     
      data[0] = (accel_bias_reg[0] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[1] = (accel_bias_reg[0])      & 0xFF;
      data[1] = data[1] | mask_bit[0]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
      data[2] = (accel_bias_reg[1] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[3] = (accel_bias_reg[1])      & 0xFF;
      data[3] = data[3] | mask_bit[1]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
      data[4] = (accel_bias_reg[2] >> 8) & 0xFF;
      data[5] = (accel_bias_reg[2])      & 0xFF;
      data[5] = data[5] | mask_bit[2]; // preserve temperature compensation bit when writing back to accelerometer bias registers
    
      // Push accelerometer biases to hardware registers; doesn't work well for accelerometer
      // Are we handling the temperature compensation bit correctly?
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_H, data[0]);  
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, XA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[1]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_H, data[2]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, YA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[3]);  
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_H, data[4]);
    //  writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ZA_OFFSET_L_TC, data[5]);
    
    // Output scaled accelerometer biases for manual subtraction in the main program
       dest2[0] = (float)accel_bias[0]/(float)accelsensitivity; 
       dest2[1] = (float)accel_bias[1]/(float)accelsensitivity;
       dest2[2] = (float)accel_bias[2]/(float)accelsensitivity;
    }
    
    
    // Accelerometer and gyroscope self test; check calibration wrt factory settings
    void MPU6050SelfTest(float * destination) // Should return percent deviation from factory trim values, +/- 14 or less deviation is a pass
    {
       uint8_t rawData[4];
       uint8_t selfTest[6];
       float factoryTrim[6];
       
       // Configure the accelerometer for self-test
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, ACCEL_CONFIG, 0xF0); // Enable self test on all three axes and set accelerometer range to +/- 8 g
       writeByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, GYRO_CONFIG,  0xE0); // Enable self test on all three axes and set gyro range to +/- 250 degrees/s
       delay(250);  // Delay a while to let the device execute the self-test
       rawData[0] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_X); // X-axis self-test results
       rawData[1] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_Y); // Y-axis self-test results
       rawData[2] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_Z); // Z-axis self-test results
       rawData[3] = readByte(MPU6050_ADDRESS, SELF_TEST_A); // Mixed-axis self-test results
       // Extract the acceleration test results first
       selfTest[0] = (rawData[0] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x30) >> 4 ; // XA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[1] = (rawData[1] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x0C) >> 2 ; // YA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[2] = (rawData[2] >> 3) | (rawData[3] & 0x03) >> 0 ; // ZA_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       // Extract the gyration test results first
       selfTest[3] = rawData[0]  & 0x1F ; // XG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[4] = rawData[1]  & 0x1F ; // YG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer
       selfTest[5] = rawData[2]  & 0x1F ; // ZG_TEST result is a five-bit unsigned integer   
       // Process results to allow final comparison with factory set values
       factoryTrim[0] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[0] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Xa] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[1] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[1] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Ya] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[2] = (4096.0*0.34)*(pow( (0.92/0.34) , (((float)selfTest[2] - 1.0)/30.0))); // FT[Za] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[3] =  ( 25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[3] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Xg] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[4] =  (-25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[4] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Yg] factory trim calculation
       factoryTrim[5] =  ( 25.0*131.0)*(pow( 1.046 , ((float)selfTest[5] - 1.0) ));             // FT[Zg] factory trim calculation
       
     //  Output self-test results and factory trim calculation if desired
     //  Serial.println(selfTest[0]); Serial.println(selfTest[1]); Serial.println(selfTest[2]);
     //  Serial.println(selfTest[3]); Serial.println(selfTest[4]); Serial.println(selfTest[5]);
     //  Serial.println(factoryTrim[0]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[1]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[2]);
     //  Serial.println(factoryTrim[3]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[4]); Serial.println(factoryTrim[5]);
    
     // Report results as a ratio of (STR - FT)/FT; the change from Factory Trim of the Self-Test Response
     // To get to percent, must multiply by 100 and subtract result from 100
       for (int i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
         destination[i] = 100.0 + 100.0*((float)selfTest[i] - factoryTrim[i])/factoryTrim[i]; // Report percent differences
       }
       
    }
    
      void writeByte(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress, uint8_t data)
    {
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);  // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);           // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(data);                 // Put data in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission();           // Send the Tx buffer
    }
    
      uint8_t readByte(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress)
    {
    	uint8_t data; // `data` will store the register data	 
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);         // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);	                 // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission(false);             // Send the Tx buffer, but send a restart to keep connection alive
    	Wire.requestFrom(address, (uint8_t) 1);  // Read one byte from slave register address 
    	data = Wire.read();                      // Fill Rx buffer with result
    	return data;                             // Return data read from slave register
    }
    
      void readBytes(uint8_t address, uint8_t subAddress, uint8_t count, uint8_t * dest)
    {  
    	Wire.beginTransmission(address);   // Initialize the Tx buffer
    	Wire.write(subAddress);            // Put slave register address in Tx buffer
    	Wire.endTransmission(false);       // Send the Tx buffer, but send a restart to keep connection alive
    	uint8_t i = 0;
            Wire.requestFrom(address, count);  // Read bytes from slave register address 
    	while (Wire.available()) {
            dest[i++] = Wire.read(); }         // Put read results in the Rx buffer
    }

  8. #8
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Jan 2018
    Posts
    5
    Hi lownote !, thank you so much for your code, but gyro is not getting initialized. iam getting the " Starting..." message on the serial monitor and nothing is happening. i have connected 6.6k resistance as pullup resistor.
    please help.

  9. #9
    What teensy are you using? What pins?

    Do you have anything else wired to the teensy? If so you might need to tell the code to look for it at 0x69 instead of 0x68.

    Have you tried not using the resistor? Depending on the breakout board you do not need a resistor.

    Quote Originally Posted by ITS_vk View Post
    Hi lownote !, thank you so much for your code, but gyro is not getting initialized. iam getting the " Starting..." message on the serial monitor and nothing is happening. i have connected 6.6k resistance as pullup resistor.
    please help.

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