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Thread: Fast streaming USB data through Teensy DAC

  1. #26
    Hey Manitou,
    Since you did this for a Teensy 3.2, I thought I would do the same for the Teensy 3.6.
    Click image for larger version. 

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    I am also including the sketch I used to generate the result. Note that I tried to adopt as much from the DMAChannel library as I could, but there are two lines that I had to comment out because it didn't function as I expected it to. The rise time is 463 ns and the fall time is 527 ns.
    #include <DMAChannel.h>
    #define BUFFER_SIZE 32
    uint16_t MOD_Start = 0x8; // For Teensy 3.6 bus frequency = 60 MHz -> 8 bus clocks. PDB minimum is 8 for DAC. DAC update rate = MOD x 1./(busFrequency) sec.
    uint16_t DAC0BufSize = 16;
    static volatile uint16_t   __attribute__((aligned(16)))  squarewave[BUFFER_SIZE];
    DMAChannel* dma0 = new DMAChannel(false); // dac object
    void setup() {
    // Fill the table with two square waves. For BUFFER_SIZE = 32, that is one square wave for each DAC buffer
      for(int i = 0; i < BUFFER_SIZE/4; i++) {
          squarewave[i] = 0;
          squarewave[i + BUFFER_SIZE / 4] = 4095;
          squarewave[i + BUFFER_SIZE / 2] = 0;
          squarewave[i + 3 * BUFFER_SIZE / 4] = 4095;
    // Initialize DAC0
      SIM_SCGC2 |= SIM_SCGC2_DAC0; // enable DAC clock
      DAC0_C0 = DAC_C0_DACEN       // DAC Control Register 0 enables enables DAC0. See Section 41.5.4.
                | DAC_C0_DACRFS;     // Use the 3.3V reference
      // Slowly ramp up to mid-range voltage
      for (int16_t i = 0; i < 2048; i += 1) {
        *(int16_t *)&(DAC0_DAT0L) = i;
      // Fill up the DAC0 buffer with a downward ramp beginning at 2048
        using aliased_uint16 = uint16_t __attribute__((__may_alias__));
        using aliased_uint16_vptr = volatile aliased_uint16*;
        for (size_t i=0; i<16; i+=1) {
           ((aliased_uint16_vptr) &DAC0_DAT0L)[i] = 2048-(i*127);  //256*(16-i) - 1;
    // Channel Configuration Register is used to enable one of the DMA channels to one of the DMA slots on the system
    // Need to configure the DMA to align with feeding the DAC output channel.
    // The DMA Multiplexer allows up to 63 DMA request signals to map to any of the 32 DMA channels. Map DAC as a request source.
    // Initialize the DMA
    // We are using Channel 0 for driving the DAC.
    // Use the System Clock Gating Control Register to initialize and enable the DMA MUX and the DMA clock.
    // The DMA multiplexer (DMAMUX) routes DMA sources, called slots, to any of 32 DMA channels.
      dma0->begin(true); // Enable requests on DMA channel 0 - See Section 24.3.3
      dma0->TCD->SADDR = squarewave;   // Set the address of the first byte in the DMA output buffer as the source address. See Section 24.3.18
      dma0->TCD->DADDR = &DAC0_DAT0L; // Set the first data register of DAC0 as the destination address. See Section 41.5.
      dma0->TCD->SOFF = 4; // advance 32 bits, or 4 bytes per read
      dma0->TCD->DOFF = 4; // advance 32 bits, or 4 bytes per read
      dma0->TCD->ATTR = DMA_TCD_ATTR_SSIZE(DMA_TCD_ATTR_SIZE_32BIT); // See Section 24.3.20
    //  dma0->TCD->ATTR = DMA_TCD_ATTR_DSIZE(DMA_TCD_ATTR_SIZE_32BIT); // This doesn't work
    //  dma0->TCD->ATTR = DMA_TCD_ATTR_DMOD(31 - __builtin_clz(32));  // This doesn't work
                    | DMA_TCD_ATTR_DMOD(31 - __builtin_clz(32));  // set the data transfer size to 32 bit for both the source and the destination
    // Set the number of bytes transferred per minor loop, or request. See Section 24.3.21
      dma0->TCD->NBYTES = 16; //We want to fill half of the DAC buffer, which is 16 words in total, so we need 8 words - or 16 bytes - per transfer
      dma0->TCD->SLAST = -2 * BUFFER_SIZE; //Set the size of the DMA transfer (major loop)
      dma0->TCD->DLASTSGA = 0;
      dma0->TCD->BITER = 2 * BUFFER_SIZE / DAC0BufSize; // CITER value is volatile. 
      dma0->TCD->CITER = 2 * BUFFER_SIZE / DAC0BufSize; // BITER value is loaded back into the CITER field at the end of the buffer transfer.
      dma0->TCD->CSR = 0;
      dma0->triggerAtHardwareEvent(DMAMUX_SOURCE_DAC0);  //Select DAC as request source #45. See Section 23.1.1. Select DMA Channel 0 as the point of control.
    // Enable the DAC interrupts and use them to drive the DMA requests
        DAC0_C0 |= DAC_C0_DACBWIEN   // enable DMA trigger at watermark
                |  DAC_C0_DACBTIEN;   // enable DMA trigger at at top of buffer (when it toggles from 15 to 0)
        DAC0_C1 |= DAC_C1_DACBFWM(3)   // watermark for DMA trigger
                | DAC_C1_DMAEN      // Enable the DMA request - See Section 41.5.5
                | DAC_C1_DACBFEN ;    // Enable the DAC Buffer
        DAC0_C2 |= DAC_C2_DACBFRP(0); // Keeps the current value of the buffer read pointer - See Sction 41.5.6
        DAC0_C2 |= DAC_C2_DACBFUP(15);
        DAC0_SR &= ~(DAC_SR_DACBFWMF); // clear watermark flag
        DAC0_SR &= ~(DAC_SR_DACBFRTF); // clear top pos flag
        DAC0_SR &= ~(DAC_SR_DACBFRBF); // clear bottom pos flag
        DAC0_C2 |= DAC_C2_DACBFRP(12); //Initial condition required for the DAC buffer read pointer
    // Set up the PDB
      SIM_SCGC6 |= SIM_SCGC6_PDB; // turn on the PDB clock
      PDB0_SC |= PDB_SC_PDBEN; // enable the PDB
      PDB0_SC |= PDB_SC_TRGSEL(15); // trigger the PDB on software start (SWTRIG)
      PDB0_SC |= PDB_SC_CONT; // run in continuous mode
      PDB0_MOD = (uint16_t)(MOD_Start - 1);
      PDB0_DACINT0 = (uint16_t)(MOD_Start - 1);
      PDB0_DACINTC0 |= PDB_DACINTC_TOE; // enable the DAC interval trigger. - See Section 44.4.10
      PDB0_SC |= PDB_SC_LDOK; // update pdb registers
      PDB0_SC |= PDB_SC_SWTRIG; // ...and start the PDB
    void loop() {
      // Do whatever you want.

  2. #27
    Senior Member+ manitou's Avatar
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    Jan 2013
    I couldn't figure out how you could get a 200khz sine from a 480 sample sinetable in the hackaday sketch ... then I saw the * 20.0 * in the sinetable calculation loop, so a sine period is only made up of 24 samples. At low PDB frequencies the sine curve looks pretty chunky.

    ... and I don't see that the DAC FIFO option provides anything over the 2015 DAC/DMA/PDB sketch from
    and the DAC/DMA/PDB logic that Paul uses in audio lib.

  3. #28
    You're right, I didn't generate a 200 kHz sine wave from the hackaday sketch. I'm developing a sketch where I use a floating point lookup table consisting of 8192 points that I run through two integer data buffers (I use 64 points/buffer instead of 32 points/buffer to reduce overhead in order to provide more time for calculations). I feed one buffer with data from the 8192 point array while the DMA is operating from the second buffer. The CITER flag is used to determine which buffer to transfer data to. Although the DAC output is pretty distorted, I've cranked the sine wave up to 1 MHz just to make sure my code still runs within that allotted time (partly because the sine wave only consists of seven points... i.e., 1.*10-6/1.33*10-7). I didn't post that sketch because I'm still working on it and haven't had time to clean it up. I was mainly commenting on hardware performance that I was observing at that DAC update rate.

    With regard to your second comment, the primary difference between what I'm doing and the 2015 DAC/DMA/PDB sketch that you reference is, I'm running on the Teensy 3.6 because it is slightly faster than the 3.1 and it has floating point hardware. Also, the code you reference does not appear to use a DAC buffer. My concern is, any kind of interrupt that occurs at the wrong time (or, perhaps from another DMA) would cause enough of a delay in the data transfer to the DAC to inject jitter into the DAC output signal. Although it does introduce a small delay, clocking the data out of the DAC buffer is preferable because it gets around that problem.
    Regards, W

  4. #29
    Senior Member+ manitou's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2013
    FWIW, here is a simple DAC DMA buffer ping-pong example (PDB@44.1khz, no FIFO) based on Teensy audio library (hardware/teensy/avr/libraries/Audio/output_dac.cpp) :

  5. #30
    Interesting. Itís certainly worth looking at. Iím not currently using interrupts in what Iím doing. I will study it. Iím currently working on an approach that synchronizes DMA transfers from the ADC using the PDB which, after some processing, will feed the DAC. Although I have looked around, I havenít seen anything out there to support that approach. Maybe thatís not the right approach, or Iím not looking in the right place. Iím pretty new to this community and realize there is much to learn. Thanks for your comments. W

  6. #31
    Senior Member+ manitou's Avatar
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    Jan 2013
    I would recommend looking at code in Teensy audio lib. It too does ADC DMA (and I2S DMA, i think) in conjunction with DAC DMA.

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