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Thread: Teensy 4.0 crashing or stuck in loop if using SPI1 on lower clock speed.

  1. #1
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2019

    Teensy 4.0 crashing or stuck in loop if using SPI1 on lower clock speed.


    I want to make a wireless mouse using a PMW3360 sensor and a teensy 4.0. So far I have the sensor working perfectly over both SPI and SPI1. I chose to use SPI1 in the end as using SPI will make the onboard LED on pin 13 light up which I dont want because I want to save battery power. Now for some reason SPI1 works perfectly fine if I use the default 600mhz clock speed or if I overclock it (I tried the 720mhz mode). But if I try to underclock it the teensy locks up if I use SPI1 whereas SPI just functions normally even at the 24mhz mode. Does anybody have a clue what could be causing this? I also dont mind desoldering the LED but I am worried if that could cause issues if its wired up in series with the output of pin13.

  2. #2
    Senior Member+ KurtE's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2014
    Sorry, I have no idea.

    Might have to experiment some. As for as the SPI objects are concerned the only real different is
    internally SPI object uses hardware LPSPI4 and SPI1 uses LPSPI3...

    I believe both use the same clock tree settings, so should be the same... But then again SHOULD does not always implies DOES...

    What clock speed are you trying to use?

    And likewise do you have same simple example that shows the hang/crash?

  3. #3
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2019
    I want to preferably use the lowest clock speed but if that proves to slow I will increase it if nessecary. For SPI all the underclock settings worked and it resulted in less power draw but for SPI1 none of them worked only the overclocked (720mhz) and stock 600mhz.

    I made an example program where it crashes but in my main program its doing the same thing.

    #include <PMW3360.h>
    #define MOT 17   // motion interrupt pin, connect this pin to MT on the module.
    #define SS  0   // Slave Select pin. Connect this to SS on the module.
    PMW3360 sensor;
    volatile bool motion = false;
    short x = 0;
    short y = 0;
    void setup() {
      while (!Serial);
      pinMode(0, OUTPUT);        //SS
      pinMode(26, OUTPUT);        //MOSI
      pinMode(1, INPUT_PULLUP);  //MISO
      pinMode(27, OUTPUT);        //SCK
      pinMode(16, OUTPUT);        //RESET
      pinMode(17, INPUT_PULLUP);   //MOTION
      digitalWrite(16, HIGH);
      if (sensor.begin(SS)) // 0 is the pin connected to SS of the module.
        Serial.println("Sensor initialization succesfull");
        Serial.println("Sensor initialization failed");
      pinMode(MOT, INPUT_PULLUP);
      attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(MOT), motionDetected, FALLING);
      // if motion interrupt pin is already low, read it from the first loop.
      if (digitalRead(MOT) == LOW)
        motion = true;
    void loop() {
      if (motion)
        cli();      // disable interrupt during motion data processing.
        PMW3360_DATA data = sensor.readBurst(); // read sensor data.
        x = data.dx;
        y = data.dy;
        motion = false;
        sei();      // enable interrupt again.
    void motionDetected() // interrupt service routine should be minimized.
      motion = true;    // flag setting.
    Below is an edited version of the library source code I am using to control the PMW3360 so SPI1 works with it. (I changed whereever it says SPI to SPI1 so it will use SPI1 instead)
    Original can be found here

      PMW3366.cpp - Library for interfacing PMW3360 motion sensor module
      Copyright (c) 2019, Sunjun Kim
      This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
      modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
      License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
      version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
      This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
      but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
      Lesser General Public License for more details.
      You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
      License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
      Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
    #include "PMW3360.h"
    #define BEGIN_COM digitalWrite(_ss, LOW); delayMicroseconds(1)
    #define END_COM   delayMicroseconds(1); digitalWrite(_ss, HIGH)
    #define SPI_BEGIN SPI1.beginTransaction(SPISettings(16000000, MSBFIRST, SPI_MODE3))
    #define SPI_END   SPI1.endTransaction()
    const unsigned short firmware_length = 4094;
    const unsigned char firmware_data[] PROGMEM = {    // SROM 0x04
    0x01, 0x04, 0x8e, 0x96, 0x6e, 0x77, 0x3e, 0xfe, 0x7e, 0x5f, 0x1d, 0xb8, 0xf2, 0x66, 0x4e, 
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    0x6d, 0x58, 0x13, 0x85, 0x88, 0x92, 0x87, 0x6d, 0x58, 0x32, 0xc7, 0x0c, 0x9a, 0x97, 0xac, 
    0xda, 0x36, 0xee, 0x5e, 0x3e, 0xdf, 0x1d, 0xb8, 0xf2, 0x66, 0x2f, 0xbd, 0xf8, 0x72, 0x47, 
    0xed, 0x58, 0x13, 0x85, 0x88, 0x92, 0x87, 0x8c, 0x7b, 0x55, 0x09, 0x90, 0xa2, 0xc6, 0xef, 
    0x3d, 0xf8, 0x53, 0x24, 0xab, 0xd4, 0x2a, 0xb7, 0xec, 0x5a, 0x36, 0xee, 0x5e, 0x3e, 0xdf, 
    0x3c, 0xfa, 0x76, 0x4f, 0xfd, 0x59, 0x30, 0xe2, 0x46, 0xef, 0x3d, 0xf8, 0x53, 0x05, 0x69, 
    0x31, 0xc1, 0x00, 0x82, 0x86, 0x8e, 0x7f, 0x5d, 0x19, 0xb0, 0xe2, 0x27, 0xcc, 0xfb, 0x74, 
    0x4b, 0x14, 0x8b, 0x94, 0x8b, 0x75, 0x68, 0x33, 0xc5, 0x08, 0x92, 0x87, 0x8c, 0x9a, 0xb6, 
    0xcf, 0x1c, 0xba, 0xd7, 0x0d, 0x98, 0xb2, 0xe6, 0x2f, 0xdc, 0x1b, 0x95, 0x89, 0x71, 0x60, 
    0x23, 0xc4, 0x0a, 0x96, 0x8f, 0x9c, 0xba, 0xf6, 0x6e, 0x3f, 0xfc, 0x5b, 0x15, 0xa8, 0xd2, 
    0x26, 0xaf, 0xbd, 0xf8, 0x72, 0x66, 0x2f, 0xdc, 0x1b, 0xb4, 0xcb, 0x14, 0x8b, 0x94, 0xaa, 
    0xb7, 0xcd, 0xf9, 0x51, 0x01, 0x80, 0x82, 0x86, 0x6f, 0x3d, 0xd9, 0x30, 0xe2, 0x27, 0xcc, 
    0xfb, 0x74, 0x4b, 0x14, 0xaa, 0xb7, 0xcd, 0xf9, 0x70, 0x43, 0x04, 0x6b, 0x35, 0xc9, 0xf1, 
    0x60, 0x23, 0xa5, 0xc8, 0xf3, 0x45, 0x08, 0x92, 0x87, 0x6d, 0x58, 0x32, 0xe6, 0x2f, 0xbd, 
    0xf8, 0x72, 0x66, 0x4e, 0x1e, 0xbe, 0xfe, 0x7e, 0x7e, 0x7e, 0x5f, 0x1d, 0x99, 0x91, 0xa0, 
    0xa3, 0xc4, 0x0a, 0x77, 0x4d, 0x18, 0x93, 0xa4, 0xab, 0xd4, 0x0b, 0x75, 0x49, 0x10, 0xa2, 
    0xc6, 0xef, 0x3d, 0xf8, 0x53, 0x24, 0xab, 0xb5, 0xe8, 0x33, 0xe4, 0x4a, 0x16, 0xae, 0xde, 
    0x1f, 0xbc, 0xdb, 0x15, 0xa8, 0xb3, 0xc5, 0x08, 0x73, 0x45, 0xe9, 0x31, 0xc1, 0xe1, 0x21, 
    0xa1, 0xa1, 0xa1, 0xc0, 0x02, 0x86, 0x6f, 0x5c, 0x3a, 0xd7, 0x0d, 0x98, 0x93, 0xa4, 0xca, 
    0x16, 0xae, 0xde, 0x1f, 0x9d, 0x99, 0xb0, 0xe2, 0x46, 0xef, 0x3d, 0xf8, 0x72, 0x47, 0x0c, 
    0x9a, 0xb6, 0xcf, 0xfd, 0x59, 0x11, 0xa0, 0xa3, 0xa5, 0xc8, 0xf3, 0x45, 0x08, 0x92, 0x87, 
    0x6d, 0x39, 0xf0, 0x43, 0x04, 0x8a, 0x96, 0xae, 0xde, 0x3e, 0xdf, 0x1d, 0x99, 0x91, 0xa0, 
    0xc2, 0x06, 0x6f, 0x3d, 0xf8, 0x72, 0x47, 0x0c, 0x9a, 0x97, 0x8d, 0x98, 0x93, 0x85, 0x88, 
    0x73, 0x45, 0xe9, 0x31, 0xe0, 0x23, 0xa5, 0xa9, 0xd0, 0x03, 0x84, 0x8a, 0x96, 0xae, 0xde, 
    0x1f, 0xbc, 0xdb, 0x15, 0xa8, 0xd2, 0x26, 0xce, 0xff, 0x5d, 0x19, 0x91, 0x81, 0x80, 0x82, 
    0x67, 0x2d, 0xd8, 0x13, 0xa4, 0xab, 0xd4, 0x0b, 0x94, 0xaa, 0xb7, 0xcd, 0xf9, 0x51, 0x20, 
    0xa3, 0xa5, 0xc8, 0xf3, 0x45, 0xe9, 0x50, 0x22, 0xc6, 0xef, 0x5c, 0x3a, 0xd7, 0x0d, 0x98, 
    0x93, 0x85, 0x88, 0x73, 0x64, 0x4a, 0xf7, 0x4d, 0xf9, 0x51, 0x20, 0xa3, 0xc4, 0x0a, 0x96, 
    0xae, 0xde, 0x3e, 0xfe, 0x7e, 0x7e, 0x7e, 0x5f, 0x3c, 0xfa, 0x76, 0x4f, 0xfd, 0x78, 0x72, 
    0x66, 0x2f, 0xbd, 0xd9, 0x30, 0xc3, 0xe5, 0x48, 0x12, 0x87, 0x8c, 0x7b, 0x55, 0x28, 0xd2, 
    0x07, 0x8c, 0x9a, 0x97, 0xac, 0xda, 0x17, 0x8d, 0x79, 0x51, 0x20, 0xa3, 0xc4, 0xeb, 0x54, 
    0x0b, 0x94, 0x8b, 0x94, 0xaa, 0xd6, 0x2e, 0xbf, 0xfc, 0x5b, 0x15, 0xa8, 0xd2, 0x26, 0xaf, 
    0xdc, 0x1b, 0xb4, 0xea, 0x37, 0xec, 0x3b, 0xf4, 0x6a, 0x37, 0xcd, 0x18, 0x93, 0x85, 0x69, 
    0x31, 0xc1, 0xe1, 0x40, 0xe3, 0x25, 0xc8, 0x12, 0x87, 0x8c, 0x9a, 0xb6, 0xcf, 0xfd, 0x59, 
    0x11, 0xa0, 0xc2, 0x06, 0x8e, 0x7f, 0x5d, 0x38, 0xf2, 0x47, 0x0c, 0x7b, 0x74, 0x6a, 0x37, 
    0xec, 0x5a, 0x36, 0xee, 0x3f, 0xfc, 0x7a, 0x76, 0x4f, 0x1c, 0x9b, 0x95, 0x89, 0x71, 0x41, 
    0x00, 0x63, 0x44, 0xeb, 0x54, 0x2a, 0xd6, 0x0f, 0x9c, 0xba, 0xd7, 0x0d, 0x98, 0x93, 0x85, 
    0x69, 0x31, 0xc1, 0x00, 0x82, 0x86, 0x8e, 0x9e, 0xbe, 0xdf, 0x3c, 0xfa, 0x57, 0x2c, 0xda, 
    0x36, 0xee, 0x3f, 0xfc, 0x5b, 0x15, 0x89, 0x71, 0x41, 0x00, 0x82, 0x86, 0x8e, 0x7f, 0x5d, 
    0x38, 0xf2, 0x47, 0xed, 0x58, 0x13, 0xa4, 0xca, 0xf7, 0x4d, 0xf9, 0x51, 0x01, 0x80, 0x63, 
    0x44, 0xeb, 0x54, 0x2a, 0xd6, 0x2e, 0xbf, 0xdd, 0x19, 0x91, 0xa0, 0xa3, 0xa5, 0xa9, 0xb1, 
    0xe0, 0x42, 0x06, 0x8e, 0x7f, 0x5d, 0x19, 0x91, 0xa0, 0xa3, 0xc4, 0x0a, 0x96, 0x8f, 0x7d, 
    0x78, 0x72, 0x47, 0x0c, 0x7b, 0x74, 0x6a, 0x56, 0x2e, 0xde, 0x1f, 0xbc, 0xfa, 0x57, 0x0d, 
    0x79, 0x51, 0x01, 0x61, 0x21, 0xa1, 0xc0, 0xe3, 0x25, 0xa9, 0xb1, 0xc1, 0xe1, 0x40, 0x02, 
    0x67, 0x4c, 0x1a, 0x97, 0x8d, 0x98, 0x93, 0xa4, 0xab, 0xd4, 0x2a, 0xd6, 0x0f, 0x9c, 0x9b, 
    0xb4, 0xcb, 0x14, 0xaa, 0xb7, 0xcd, 0xf9, 0x51, 0x20, 0xa3, 0xc4, 0xeb, 0x35, 0xc9, 0xf1, 
    0x60, 0x42, 0x06, 0x8e, 0x7f, 0x7c, 0x7a, 0x76, 0x6e, 0x3f, 0xfc, 0x7a, 0x76, 0x6e, 0x5e, 
    0x3e, 0xfe, 0x7e, 0x5f, 0x3c, 0xdb, 0x15, 0x89, 0x71, 0x41, 0xe1, 0x21, 0xc0, 0xe3, 0x44, 
    0xeb, 0x54, 0x2a, 0xb7, 0xcd, 0xf9, 0x70, 0x62, 0x27, 0xad, 0xd8, 0x32, 0xc7, 0x0c, 0x7b, 
    0x74, 0x4b, 0x14, 0xaa, 0xb7, 0xec, 0x3b, 0xd5, 0x28, 0xd2, 0x07, 0x6d, 0x39, 0xd1, 0x20, 
    0xc2, 0xe7, 0x4c, 0x1a, 0x97, 0x8d, 0x98, 0xb2, 0xc7, 0x0c, 0x59, 0x28, 0xf3, 0x9b };
    //	PMW3360 Motion Sensor Module
    // bascially do nothing here
    // public
    begin: initalize variables, prepare the sensor to be init.
    # parameter
    ss_pin: The arduino pin that is connected to slave select on the module.
    CPI: initial CPI. optional.
    bool PMW3360::begin(unsigned int ss_pin, unsigned int CPI)
      _ss = ss_pin;
      _inBurst = false;
      pinMode(_ss, OUTPUT);
      digitalWrite(_ss, HIGH);
      // SPI.setDataMode(SPI_MODE3);
      // SPI.setBitOrder(MSBFIRST);
      // hard reset
      END_COM; BEGIN_COM; END_COM; // ensure that the serial port is reset
      adns_write_reg(REG_Shutdown, 0xb6); // Shutdown first
      adns_write_reg(REG_Power_Up_Reset, 0x5a); // force reset
      delay(50); // wait for it to reboot
      // read registers 0x02 to 0x06 (and discard the data)
      // upload the firmware
      return check_signature();
    // public
    setCPI: set CPI level of the motion sensor.
    # parameter
    cpi: Count per Inch value
    void PMW3360::setCPI(unsigned int cpi)
      int cpival = constrain((cpi/100)-1, 0, 0x77); // limits to 0--119 
      //_CPI = (cpival + 1)*100;
      adns_write_reg(REG_Config1, cpival);
    // public
    getCPI: get CPI level of the motion sensor.
    # retrun
    cpi: Count per Inch value
    unsigned int PMW3360::getCPI()
      int cpival = adns_read_reg(REG_Config1);
      return (cpival + 1)*100;
    // public
    readBurst: get one frame of motion data. 
    # retrun
    type: PMW3360_DATA
    PMW3360_DATA PMW3360::readBurst()
      unsigned long fromLast = micros() - _lastBurst;
      byte burstBuffer[12];
      if(!_inBurst || fromLast > 500*1000)
        adns_write_reg(REG_Motion_Burst, 0x00);
        _inBurst = true;    
      delayMicroseconds(35); // waits for tSRAD  
      SPI1.transfer(burstBuffer, 12); // read burst buffer
      delayMicroseconds(1); // tSCLK-NCS for read operation is 120ns
      if(burstBuffer[0] & 0b111) // panic recovery, sometimes burst mode works weird.
        _inBurst = false;
      _lastBurst = micros();
      PMW3360_DATA data;
      bool motion = (burstBuffer[0] & 0x80) != 0;
      bool surface = (burstBuffer[0] & 0x08) == 0;   // 0 if on surface / 1 if off surface
      uint8_t xl = burstBuffer[2];    // dx LSB
      uint8_t xh = burstBuffer[3];    // dx MSB
      uint8_t yl = burstBuffer[4];    // dy LSB
      uint8_t yh = burstBuffer[5];    // dy MSB
      uint8_t sl = burstBuffer[10];   // shutter LSB
      uint8_t sh = burstBuffer[11];   // shutter MSB
      int x = xh<<8 | xl;
      int y = yh<<8 | yl;
      unsigned int shutter = sh<<8 | sl;
      data.isMotion = motion;
      data.isOnSurface = surface;
      data.dx = x;
      data.dy = y;
      data.SQUAL = burstBuffer[6];
      data.rawDataSum = burstBuffer[7];
      data.maxRawData = burstBuffer[8];
      data.minRawData = burstBuffer[9];
      data.shutter = shutter;
      return data;
    // public
    readReg: get one byte value from the given reg_addr.
    # parameter
    reg_addr: the register address
    # retrun
    byte value on the register.
    byte PMW3360::readReg(byte reg_addr)
      byte data = adns_read_reg(reg_addr);
      return data;
    // public
    writeReg: write one byte value to the given reg_addr.
    # parameter
    reg_addr: the register address
    data: byte value to be pass to the register.
    void PMW3360::writeReg(byte reg_addr, byte data)
      adns_write_reg(reg_addr, data);
    adns_read_reg: write one byte value to the given reg_addr.
    byte PMW3360::adns_read_reg(byte reg_addr) {
      if(reg_addr != REG_Motion_Burst)
         _inBurst = false;
      // send adress of the register, with MSBit = 0 to indicate it's a read
      SPI1.transfer(reg_addr & 0x7f );
      delayMicroseconds(100); // tSRAD is 25, but 100us seems to be stable.
      // read data
      byte data = SPI1.transfer(0);
      delayMicroseconds(19); //  tSRW/tSRR (=20us) minus tSCLK-NCS
      return data;
    adns_write_reg: write one byte value to the given reg_addr
    void PMW3360::adns_write_reg(byte reg_addr, byte data) {
      if(reg_addr != REG_Motion_Burst)
        _inBurst = false;
      //send adress of the register, with MSBit = 1 to indicate it's a write
      SPI1.transfer(reg_addr | 0x80 );
      //sent data
      delayMicroseconds(20); // tSCLK-NCS for write operation
      delayMicroseconds(100); // tSWW/tSWR (=120us) minus tSCLK-NCS. Could be shortened, but is looks like a safe lower bound
    adns_upload_firmware: load SROM content to the motion sensor
    void PMW3360::adns_upload_firmware() {
      //Write 0 to Rest_En bit of Config2 register to disable Rest mode.
      adns_write_reg(REG_Config2, 0x00);
      // write 0x1d in SROM_enable reg for initializing
      adns_write_reg(REG_SROM_Enable, 0x1d);
      // wait for more than one frame period
      delay(10); // assume that the frame rate is as low as 100fps... even if it should never be that low
      // write 0x18 to SROM_enable to start SROM download
      adns_write_reg(REG_SROM_Enable, 0x18);
      // write the SROM file (=firmware data)
      SPI1.transfer(REG_SROM_Load_Burst | 0x80); // write burst destination adress
      // send all bytes of the firmware
      unsigned char c;
      for (int i = 0; i < firmware_length; i++) {
        c = (unsigned char)pgm_read_byte(firmware_data + i);
      //Read the SROM_ID register to verify the ID before any other register reads or writes.
      //Write 0x00 (rest disable) to Config2 register for wired mouse or 0x20 for wireless mouse design. 
      adns_write_reg(REG_Config2, 0x00);
    check_signature: check whether SROM is successfully loaded
    return: true if the rom is loaded correctly.
    bool PMW3360::check_signature() {
      byte pid = adns_read_reg(REG_Product_ID);
      byte iv_pid = adns_read_reg(REG_Inverse_Product_ID);
      byte SROM_ver = adns_read_reg(REG_SROM_ID);
      return (pid==0x42 && iv_pid == 0xBD && SROM_ver == 0x04); // signature for SROM 0x04
    prepareImage: prepare a raw image capture from the snesor
    void PMW3360::prepareImage()
      adns_write_reg(REG_Config2, 0x00);
      adns_write_reg(REG_Frame_Capture, 0x83);
      adns_write_reg(REG_Frame_Capture, 0xc5);  
      SPI1.transfer(REG_Raw_Data_Burst & 0x7f);
    readImagePixel: prepare a raw image capture from the snesor
    byte PMW3360::readImagePixel()
      byte pixel = SPI1.transfer(0);
      return pixel;
    void PMW3360::endImage()
    I also stumbled accros this thread:
    Could it be a similar problem but specific to SPI1 or is that not relevant.

  4. #4
    Junior Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2019
    I have finally found the problem it was related to the SPI.h library in teensy/avr/libraries. I stumbled on this thread In my SPI.h library atleast the first clock was selected:
    After changing it to
    It completely solved my problem not being able to use lower cpu clock speeds on SPI1. If anyone else has this problem with SPI1 please try to do this and see if it fixes it. I honestly dont know too much about all the stuff written in SPI.h I got quite lucky I guess that this worked for me.

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