# [posted] Keyboard + simple firmware

#### stefan.jakobsson

##### New member
Hi!

I'm just finishing my first mechanical keyboard. The plate is 3D-printed. The matrix is hand soldered. I'm using a Teensy LC as controller.

I started out looking at the ready made keyboard firmwares available, but it seemed a bit complicated to get working. So I decided to write my own firmware from scratch using nothing but the standard Keyboard class in Teensyduino.

For now, it supports two layers (standard layer, and another layer when the FN key is pressed).

It also has a simple built in debouncing handler.

The keyboard works surprisingly well. After I handled one short in the matrix due to melted wire insulation.

Should any of you want to use my code, you are free to do so.

Code:
``````/*
* Programming by Stefan Jakobsson, 2019
* Released to public domain
*/

#define ROW_COUNT 5        //Number of rows in the keyboard matrix
#define COL_COUNT 14       //Number of columns in the keyboard matrix

#define DEBOUNCE 10         //Adjust as needed: increase if bouncing problem, decrease if not all keypresses register; not less than 2
#define SCAN_DELAY 5        //Delay between scan cycles in ms

#define KC_FN 67            //Keyboard matrix scan code for FN key. FN key switches between layer 0 and 1.
#define KEY_UNDEFINED -1    //For keyboard matrix positions not in use

int rowPins[] = {17,21,18,19,20};   //Teensy pins attached to matrix rows
int colPins[] = {16,15,14,2,3,4,12,11,10,9,8,7,6,5};  //Teensy pins attached to matrix columns

//Key codes for layer 0 (standard layer)
int layer_0[] = {KEY_ESC, KEY_1, KEY_2, KEY_3, KEY_4, KEY_5, KEY_6, KEY_7, KEY_8, KEY_9, KEY_0, KEY_MINUS, KEY_EQUAL, KEY_BACKSPACE,
KEY_TAB, KEY_Q, KEY_W, KEY_E, KEY_R, KEY_T, KEY_Y, KEY_U, KEY_I, KEY_O, KEY_P, KEY_LEFT_BRACE, KEY_RIGHT_BRACE, KEY_ENTER,
KEY_CAPS_LOCK, KEY_A, KEY_S, KEY_D, KEY_F, KEY_G, KEY_H, KEY_J, KEY_K, KEY_L, KEY_SEMICOLON, KEY_QUOTE, KEY_BACKSLASH, KEY_UNDEFINED,
MODIFIERKEY_SHIFT, KEY_TILDE, KEY_Z, KEY_X, KEY_C, KEY_V, KEY_B, KEY_N, KEY_M, KEY_COMMA, KEY_PERIOD, KEY_SLASH, MODIFIERKEY_RIGHT_SHIFT, KEY_UNDEFINED,
MODIFIERKEY_CTRL, MODIFIERKEY_GUI, MODIFIERKEY_ALT, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_SPACE, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, MODIFIERKEY_RIGHT_ALT, KEY_UNDEFINED, MODIFIERKEY_RIGHT_GUI, MODIFIERKEY_RIGHT_CTRL};

//Key codes for layer 1 (FN key pressed)
int layer_1[] = {KEY_TILDE, KEY_F1, KEY_F2, KEY_F3, KEY_F4, KEY_F5, KEY_F6, KEY_F7, KEY_F8, KEY_F9, KEY_F10, KEY_F11, KEY_F12, KEY_UNDEFINED,
KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_HOME, KEY_UP, KEY_PAGE_UP, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED,
KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_LEFT, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_RIGHT, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED,
KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_END, KEY_DOWN, KEY_PAGE_DOWN, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED,
KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED, KEY_UNDEFINED};

int currentRow = 0;
int keyStatus[ROW_COUNT*COL_COUNT];

void setup() {
//Row pins
pinMode(rowPins[0], OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(rowPins[0], LOW);

int i;
for (i=1;i<ROW_COUNT;i++){
pinMode(rowPins[i], INPUT);
}

//Column pins
for (i=0;i<COL_COUNT;i++){
pinMode(colPins[i], INPUT_PULLUP);
}

//Clear keyStatus
for (i=0;i<ROW_COUNT*COL_COUNT;i++){
keyStatus[i]=0;
}
}

void loop() {
scanKeys();
delay(SCAN_DELAY);
}

/*
* Scan keyboard matrix, results stored in keyStatus array
*
* Key status values:
* DEBOUNCE*2                   = key press event
* DEBOUNCE+1 to DEBOUNCE*2-1   = key down
* DEBOUNCE                     = key release event
* 0 to DEBOUNCE-1              = key up
*/
void scanKeys(){
int i;
for (i=0;i<ROW_COUNT*COL_COUNT;i++){
int pin = getKeyPin(i);

//Key press event
keyStatus[i] = DEBOUNCE*2;
keyPress(i);
}
else if (keyStatus[i]>DEBOUNCE+1){
keyStatus[i]--;
}
//Key release event
keyStatus[i]--;
keyRelease(i);
}
else if (keyStatus[i]>0 && keyStatus[i]<=DEBOUNCE){
keyStatus[i]--;
}
}
}

/*
* Returns input pin to be read by keyScan method
*
* Param key is the keyboard matrix scan code (row * COL_COUNT + col)
*/
int getKeyPin(int key){
int p = key/COL_COUNT;
if (p != currentRow){
pinMode(rowPins[currentRow], INPUT);
pinMode(rowPins[p], OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(rowPins[p], LOW);
currentRow=p;
}
return colPins[key % COL_COUNT];
}

/*
* Sends key press event
*
* Param keyCode is the keyboard matrix scan code (row * COL_COUNT + col)
*/

void keyPress(int keyCode){
if (keyCode == KC_FN) releaseLayer(layer_0);
else if (isKeyDown(KC_FN) && layer_1[keyCode]!=KEY_UNDEFINED){
Keyboard.press(layer_1[keyCode]);
}
else if (layer_0[keyCode]!=KEY_UNDEFINED){
Keyboard.press(layer_0[keyCode]);
}
}

/*
* Sends key release event
*
* Param keyCode is the keyboard matrix scan code (row * COL_COUNT + col)
*/

void keyRelease(int keyCode){
if (keyCode == KC_FN) releaseLayer(layer_1);
else if (isKeyDown(KC_FN) && layer_1[keyCode]!=KEY_UNDEFINED){
Keyboard.release(layer_1[keyCode]);
}
else if (layer_0[keyCode]!=KEY_UNDEFINED){
Keyboard.release(layer_0[keyCode]);
}
}

/*
* Relases all keys in the layer; called upon change of layer, i.e. press or release of FN key
*
* Param layer[] array of key codes for the layer to be released
*/
void releaseLayer(int layer[]){
int i;
for (i=0;i<ROW_COUNT*COL_COUNT;i++){
if (i!=KC_FN && isKeyDown(i)){
keyStatus[i] = DEBOUNCE;
Keyboard.release(layer[i]);
}
}
}

/*
* Returns 0 if the specified key is pressed, otherwise a value not equal to 0
*
* Param keyCode is the keyboard matrix scan code (row * COL_COUNT * col)
*/
int isKeyDown(int keyCode){
if (keyStatus[keyCode]>DEBOUNCE) return 1; else return 0;
}``````

Some pictures of my keyboard project. It should be around 60 % of a full size one.

Now working on the bottom cover plate. Yesterday I cut it out rough from a 1.5 mm steel plate I had in the garage. Remains to make the edges straight and smooth, and, of coarse, to paint it.

If nothing breaks, that should be all.

Host wakeup problem

I've now realized that I have a small problem.

The keyboard will not wake my computer (macOS 10.13) from sleep, as my normal keyboard and mouse do.

As far as I understand, Teensyduino's Keyboard class doesn't send USB wakeup requests. In order to get this working, you have to dig deeper into the USB libraries.

I've tried suggestions I read online toggling the following bits in the USB control register USB0_CTL:

- USB_CTL_RESUME
- USB_CTL_RESET